December 16, 2004

The Business Case for XSLT 2.0



by Kurt Cagle

In my previous posting (Imports and Tunnelling in XSLT2) I started down a path that I've been planning on covering for a while: presenting a solid business case for migrating to XSLT2. When I first encountered XSLT, after an initial period of attempting to understand the paradigm, I found myself both impressed and disappointed. XSLT is an often underrated technology, in great part because it doesn't fit cleanly into the Algol-based model that is most commonly used today (C, C++, C#, Java, etc.).



I consider XSLT something of a jujitsu language - it is most effective when used sparingly, letting the XML itself do the heavy lifting with the XSLT providing just enough of the pivotal support to do incredible things. That's why it has quietly become the silent partner on any number of different platforms as XML becomes more pervasive on those platforms. It is used within any number of Java and .NET applications, just another piece of the infrastructure, though one that does a disproportionate amount of the real work in applications that are increasingly driven by dynamic GUIs and web services.



Yet what disappointed me about XSLT, especially the more that I had a chance to play with it, was the fact that it was deliberately shackled by its conception as an XML translator to HTML. You couldn't manipulate non-XML text with it, could only do a fairly limited number of strong manipulations (in a language that was, fundamentally, parsing text), you couldn't create intermediate nodes for processing, and things that should have been fundamental - the ability to create an indexed for-loop, for instance - necessitated some very ugly recursion that added considerable complexity to the language without a lot of reward.



I wasn't the only one who found this to be the case, by the way. Indeed, many developers have come to XSLT for its potential capabilities but found themselves so bogged down with the verbosity and complexity of XPath manipulations that they would soon beg to find some other, easier solution. This has, in turn, created something of a backlash to the language, and more than a few projects built around XSLT have consequently become management nightmares, because few developers wanted to develop the expertise to debug seemingly incomprehensible stylesheets, especially given that it fell into the "declarative ghetto" where salaries were often lower than for procedural programmers because of the bias to see XML expertise (and consequently XSLT) as being simply an extension of HTML expertise.



This motivated me to follow the development of the "next generation" of XSLT, with the hope that it might prove an improvement over what currently existed. XSLT 1.0 was not so much broken as incomplete, though there were some fundamental changes that needed to be made to the data model in irder to accomodate the additional changes. Thus began an arduous trek following the development of XSLT 2.0.



By the time that XSLT 1.0 came out, James Clark, the iconoclastic genius who created XSLT in the first place, had shifted his attention away from transformations and into schemas, eventually laying the groundwork for Relax NG. Meanwhile, Michael Kay, the author of the authoritative XSLT books for Wrox and the creator of the Saxon XSLT processor, took over the editorship of the XSLT working group, working in conjunction with people such as Jeni Tennison and Dimitre Novatchev to establish both a set of extensions to XSLT 1.0 under the EXSLT.org banner and ultimately a proposed XSLT 1.1 Working Draft by mid 2002.



However, a number of realizations about the depth of the problem with the data model (and consequently of XPath, which relies heavily upon this model) forced the withdrawal of the XSLT 1.1 Working Draft from the W3C and the formal establishiment of an XSLT 2.0 working group. The goal of this group was simple -- to do XSLT right, to fix some of the biggest problems of XSLT that came from being based upon certain intrinsic assumptions and to revise XPath so that it would be robust enough to handle a much wider range of problems.



Not Your Father's XSLT


The language that is emerging bears a number of broad similarities with XSLT 1.0, but underneath it is a considerably more sophisticated vehicle. Perhaps the biggest change has come in the introduction of sequences. A sequence is a linear list - a set of XML objects, numbers, text strings, and other objects that can be ordered and otherwise manipulated. In XSLT 1.0 (and more specifically within XPath 1.0), you could only work with node lists, and even though such lists could hold text content (what are called text nodes) these were still containers for content rather than the content itself. By generalizing the node-set into a sequence, several things were made to happen:




  • Sequences could hold references to multiple distinct XML trees, something which was included as function in XSLT 1.0 (the document() function) but not in XPath 1.0.

  • You could create temporary trees of XML from other XML operations, using this intermediate XML as a way to perform other transformations. Most XSLT implementations had implemented a "fiat" way of doing this (a node-set() function, typically) but the implementations varied and the underlying model was incompatible with this.

  • Sequences made it much easier to eliminate duplicates and perform other logical operations on XML data, such as grouping (something that can be fiendishly difficult with XSLT 1.0).

  • Sequences made it possible to create iterative loops (something analogous to for(i=0;i!=n;i++){do something with i;}). The to operator in XPath 2.0 let's you create constructs such as (1 to 5), which generates the sequence (1,2,3,4,5).

  • Sequences also lay at the heart of another critical requirement for XSLT - the ability to parse strings into constituent pieces.


Once this foundational step was laid, the next stage in the process was to build up from that, adding new capabilities while still trying to retain as much of the power of the old standard as possible. This came about through the introduction of other innovations into the XSLT and XPath standards:



  • Regular Expressions. Regexes (as they are often called) provide a powerful tool for both searching and manipulating patterns within text. XPath 2 now incorporates the Perl regular expression engine (with some minor additions), making it possible to convert text files into sequences and from there into XML documents. This key capability makes XSLT a particularly noteworthy candidate for handling compiling, something that will be discussed later.


  • User Defined XPath Functions. The XPath Working Group established a formal mechanism for binding external functions into XPath, providing a clean, consisten means to build new functions XPath that could be written in C++, C#, Javascript, Java, Perl ... and XSLT. This dramatically reduces the amount of code necessary to invoke XSLT named templates (often by an order of magnitude or more) and also makes it possible to migrate XSLT from a Java based system to a C# based one without needing to change any XSLT - you'd just rewrite the external functions but keep the same function signatures.


  • Conditional Expressions. With XPath 2.0, you can now write if/then/else and for() statements within XPath, making it possible to create much richer logic into the language. Not only does this also reduce the amount of verbosity in the language significantly, it also makes it possible to solve what was typically not even possible in XPath - such as adding taxes and discounts into item costs in an invoice before finding a total.


  • Date/Time Manipulation. Date and time manipulation was something of a nightmare in XSLT 1.0, yet because of the importance of such information in transformations, there was a thriving industry in building work-arounds. Now such capability, including finding the difference between two dates or times, is built into the language.


  • Complex Grouping. The data model in XSLT 1.0 made it very difficult to handle certain kinds of groupings, such as mapping the relatively flat structure of HTML to the group and section model of XSL-FO or DocBook. With sequences and regular expressions, generating such groups is now possible, especially in conjunction with certain additional XSLT 2.0 elements.


  • Multiple Outputs. XSLT 1.0 was assymetric -- it was possible to pass in multiple XML documents through parameters, but it was not possible to produce more than one formal output. That's changed with XSLT 2.0. Now, you can write transformations that will generate any number of XML or text output formats, either to be saved to local storage or to be sent to external web addresses, depending upon security restrictions.


  • Type Awareness. Perhaps one of the most contoversial aspects of XSLT 2.0 and XPath 2.0 is the introduction of schema-aware tranformations which were capable of validating and manipulating typed XML content from external XML objects. This is not an intrinsic part of the specification, however, so it is less likely that all XSLT 2.0 processors will be schema aware.


This combination of features fills most of the holes left from the XSLT 1.0 implementation and makes it possible to start thinking about XSLT sitting not just along the periphery of your operation, but right in the middle handling the processing of business logic.



XSLT For Businessmen


In a typical business, you buy or implement business software in response to your changing business needs. Much of this software is anticipatory in nature - the designers of the applications attempt to model ahead of time the scenarios that are most likely to occur in your business, and then build the business logic for these scenarios into the code itself.



Anticipatory design has a number of side-effects, few of them positive. For starters, the applicability of the software becomes a measure of the degree to which the application designers were successfully able to model the business processes that occur. When the modelling is close, the application integrates well into the work flow of the company. When the modelling isn't so close, the company is all too often forced to adapt to the workflow of the software, which introduces inefficiencies.



Moreover, over time, a company's business requirements change as the business itself changes. However, the software has almost certainly been written by someone who is no longer writing that particular piece of software -- best case scenario is that they are working on some other part, and consequently have to stop what they're doing to change the code. Worst case scenario is that your lead programmer is India (unless you are in India, in which case your lead programmer is in London), has long since left the company, and likely didn't document the code terribly well. Thus, over time, the software decays, until it is no longer useful to the company, forcing another massive expenditure into the whole in your business called IT Expenditures.



Finally, many such solutions are intimately tied not just to a particular operating system but a particular machine, and should something happen to that machine, your company could be left with a major problem.



All of these situations point out the limitations of anticipatory design, but such design is still the most prevalent because it 1) keeps software vendors in business, 2) keeps consultants in business, and 3) ultimately forces hardware upgrades, keeping hardware vendors in business. Of course, unless your business is specifically dedicated to keeping these three groups in business, such design often becomes a hidden tax on computer usage, a constant drain on expenditures that becomes very easy to accept as unavoidable. However, that cost really isn't as necessary as it may seem.



One of the great benefits of XML is the fact that it's use tends to encourage adaptive rather than anticipatory design. With adaptive design, the business logic of a company can be readily encoded in an easy to manipulate bundle of information which can work across any platform. Your code can generate your user interfaces in response to changes in data requirements, passing that information into transformations that can readily encode the business logic. Moreover, even the transformations themselves can be transformed, can be designed to change as business parameters change. In short, such systems, adapt to the changing requirements of the business.



XSLT 1.0 was an interesting first step in this process, but all of the points mentioned above - the complexity of the language, the verbosity of the code, and the often counterintuitive techniques necessary to handle frequent operations made it less than idea for this particular process. However, XSLT 2.0 is considerably simpler to follow, write, and maintain, can more reliably integrate with external processes and objects, and is able to handle multiple possible input and output forms at once.



As tools such as XForms (or some equivalent XML centric forms technology) becomes more prevalent, this also means that interface tools (and not necessarily just "web tools") will increasingly generate and send XML content directly rather than the more limited name/value pairs of HTTP (in essence what SOAP does via the agency of web services), and in general XSLT is a better tool for manipulating and extracting information form XML sources than DOM tools are ... if that extracted information is itself in XML format. In that respect, DOM can be thought of as being a binding mechanism that connects XML with other object representations (that is, other programming language data structures).



This use of XSLT within XML millieus is an important concept, with very broad implications. XSLT is not sexy. There are no marketing teams out there who put out multimillion dollar ad campaigns featuring well-coifed executives staring raptly at XSLT code on their laptops. Instead, XSLT is an infrastructure sort of thing, found deep within (a surprising number of) applications, increasingly taking over the task of document and object conversions that for years had been the domain of heavily sequestered filter writers. The application I'm writing this on right now, an HTML editor which I wrote, uses XSLT to convert between an editor component's internal representation and one of several XML formats -- including docBook, XHTML, Microsoft Word 2003's XML format and others. Yet without knowing that, you'd never even be aware of how critical that technology is, because it does exist so quietly.



Code Building Code


XSLT 2.0 will likely become much more pervasive, because it's domain of applicability is so much broader and because much of the design of the second version of the language is deliberately built around the manipulation of any textually represented object -- including other programming languages. Most programming languages have a very well-defined programming structure, independent of the commands themselves -- packages, classes, constructors, destructors, methods, properties, event handlers -- in most cases there are relatively few variations off of these basic entities, in great part because programming languages are process descriptions (at least imperative languages are).



XML in turn is a good language for the description of descriptions, and as a consequence, it can very readily incorporate larger functional blocks of code in a descriptive matrix. Once in that format, generating code in other languages becomes much easier using a language such as XSLT2, especially with the addition of regular expression tokenizing parsers. On the flip side, XSLT2 is also remarkably good at the inverse process -- parsing program language blocks and converting them into an XML representation. In short, XSLT2 could find itself becoming what amounts to a universal compiler/decompiler, at first into intermediate forms such as Java or C#, and then with increasing frequency, directly into bytecode or intermediate language (IL) generators (this is especially significant of C#, which already maps many of its languages into a common IL format).



From an application standpoint, this raises the real possibility that this next generation of XSLT2 could in fact not only handle the processing of business logic, but actually generate just-in-time compiled code to more quickly execute such logic, and could perforce route it to the locations where such JIT code would be needed. User interfaces could be built on the fly, something especially critical in business applications where a significant portion of the programming work (and hence cost) that takes place is oriented to developing the screens whereby people interact with the data. The combination of XSLT2 and web services can also abstract connections into SQL and LDAP repositories, meaning both that such data sources become more interchangeable and that the way of accessing something as different as a relational database and an LDAP directory becomes irrelevant.



Finally, XSLT2 simplifies the way that information moves within your enterprise, ironically by moving away from what had been the cornerstone of programming in the 1990s - the object-oriented-programming paradigm. One of the difficulties that has emerged from OOP principles has been in determining the decomposition of a problem space into distinct classes. Programmers new to OOP (and in all too many cases not so new) have a tendency to want to model everything as a class, and as a consequence their application code begins to resemble the Harry Potter series -- full of wonder and magic, but with entirely too many pages for what is, fundamentally, a children's story. The problem with this is that each class has to be written and tested, not only in isolation but also in tandem, and a seemingly trivial change in a base class can have profound consequences for other classes built upon it.



XSLT 2.0, on the other hand, shifts the approach taken from building up this complex zoo of class critters and pushes it back towards an approach which is coming back into vogue with the advent of Linux: streams and pipes. A stream can be thought of as data moving between two processes, whether those processes be a file reader, a web server, a program, a database, a web client, or the interface to some piece of hardware. A pipe on the other hand, is the conduit which carries the stream. The OOP revolution placed a huge amount of significance on the node where pipes met, and tended to relegate the pipes and streams to secondary status, at best.



However, XML and the web is changing this. One effect of XML web services is to envision programs as being the transmission of streams of data to distinct end-points, URLs, without necessarily caring about what happens within that end-point. An object orientation gives many more points of access into an object, but typically at a cost of dealing with that object's specific data restrictions. With a web service, I can send a stream of information to a URL, and the process at that end will choose (if it is well designed) to either determine that it is valid and usable (there are processes that are designed to work with that stream at that node), that it is valid but not immediately usable (it is sent off to a different process which will attempt to rectify it into something of significance to the first process) or that it is invalid (whereupon notification of this lack of validity is sent back to the sender).



XSLT2 can handle all three potential conditions (though the case where the data is not well-formed XML gets a little complicated). Well formed XML has an associated namespace, and this namespace can actually be used by the XSLT itself to determine the proper handling of XML content, perhaps with the concept that such an XSLT could pass on the parameters acting upon the transformation into part of a SOAP message and then routing that message to the appropriate final transformation. in a purely asynchronous model (one where each node can act both as a transmitted of XML and a receiver of XML under separate processes), the routing XSLT does not have to be the XSLT that handles the final processing of the associated data -- or the one that communicates back to the client. While this model doesn't quite work in the fairly strongly synchronous browser model that most people connected to the web currently use, contemporary web clients are in fact shifting to an asynchronous model where it will work just fine.



An Open Letter


If XSLT2 is such a superior technology, why has it raised the ire of a few of the largest software vendors (most notably Microsoft)? This is in fact a case of the question providing its own answer. XSLT 2.0 provides an answer to many (perhaps most) of the complaints of XSLT 1.0, including the most damning ... that it is too conceptually difficult and verbose for programmers to learn. XSLT2 is more functionally oriented than XSLT1, making it easier for programmers more comfortable with languages such as Java or C++ to use.



XSLT2 also binds to external classes much more transparently, making it much easier to communicate with external processes within the environment, regardless of what that environment is (or what kind of box that environment is running on). It doesn't require an expensive suite of tools, compilers, and libraries of objects to work with it, and it is fundamentally oriented to manipulating XML data (though not exclusively) without the strong-typing limitations that come with Algol based languages.



XSLT is also considerably more secure, based upon what I'd call the potency argument. In essence, most binary objects contain not only their own state but also the mechanisms by which that state gets expressed to the outside world. In essence, these objects are potent - they have the ability to create side-effects that may not be obvious from their interfaces, as they have to have a certain level of interaction with the system in order to be able to function. In effect, the level of trust that these objects require of the system simply in order to operate is too high, forcing the creation of human trust authorities.



With XSLT, on the other hand, the streams of XML information coming in are pre-potent. They provide a description of state, but are reliant upon the XSLT that is resident within the server to handle the manipulation of that state, and correspondingly to specifically provide exceptions for handling things outside of the boundaries of safe behavior. It is consequently incumbent upon the maintainer of the system to choose the interpreters of that data, rather than placing the security demands upon the (non-technical) users of the applications.



Given all this, XSLT2 enabled systems could serve to signficantly erode the requirements for complex components that sit at the heart of most operating systems, a potential boon to open source systems such as Linux but one that could dramatically impede the ability to effectively sell subsequent implementations of Windows (or so at least one line of reasoning goes that I've seen bandied about). It makes code generation a just-in-time process and so effectively blurs the distinction between data and code, a distinction that Microsoft still makes even as it defines its own XML user interface language (XAML, which requires a healthy dose of C# "code-behind" in order to do more than trivial applications).



Microsoft has chosen to include XQuery 1.0 (a data-binding language that builds on XPath) but not XSLT 2.0 in Longhorn, citing everything from lack of customer interest to complexity in implementation to insufficient maturity on the part of the specification. They have even gone so far as to try to develop an alternative language, C Omega, which is supposed to provide a C# oriented approach to manipulating XML.



I've played with C Omega some - it is a reasonably good way to avoid some of the tedium of working with the W3C DOM, and it is certainly possible to use it for some of the same purposes that you'd use XSLT2, though it lacks the powerful recursive templating capability that I think gives XSLT most of its power. It presupposes that the appetite for XQuery will be strong enough that they can essentially build a hybrid language around it, though after having written two books on XQuery that have between them garnered less than the production costs for the books in question I'm much less inclined to agree, especially as XPath2/XSLT2 becomes much more functionally oriented.



At the last Sells Brothers XML Conference (which I would heartily recommend, by the way) I gave a talk on Saxon.NET, an open source project in which M. David Peterson has converted Michael Kay's superb Saxon 8.0 XSLT 2 implementation over to .NET, with Dr. Kay's approval. I'm using it now for a content management system, and it has performed far better than I had even hoped. At any rate, when the Microsoft representatives at the conference later asked at the crowd whether they would rather have work on XQuery or XSLT2, the number of people (in many cases customers of Microsoft) who wanted to see a new XSLT outnumbered those of XQuery by a considerable margin.



While I strongly support Mr. Peterson's efforts, I also would like to make a plea to Microsoft to reconsider your stance on this. I believe that the demand for a more powerful version of XSLT is out there, and that it is being driven by application developers who are building applications for Windows as well as elsewhere. It will become the de-facto standard within your competitors' business productivity suites, web clients, home entertainment applications and operating systems, because if you choose not to develop such a processor, others will provide .NET versions that will be used in place of your own offerings. You will have already done most of the hard work in implementing it, as the major portion of the changes that occur in XSLT 2 is due to the revision of XPath 2.0, which you are already developing to support XQuery.



To business decision makers reading this, chances are really good that you will likely never actually have to sit and look at a screen of XSLT 2. However, as with XML six years ago, XSLT 2 is a technology that will likely end up shouldering much of the day to day processing within your organizations over the course of the next five years -- it is a natural complement to XML, which has, like kudzu, pretty much taken over the data infrastructure of most applications it comes in contact with.



There's another factor that comes into play here from a business perspective. In 1993-4, an independent consultant could earn $250 an hour writing HTML content. Today, HTML is considered a basic skill that every graphic designer needs to learn as part of his or her doing their job, and HTML generation is mostly handled via automation mechanisms. XSLT serves many of the same purposes that tools such PHP, ASP.NET, Perl, and JSP serve today, but as the world continues its adoption of XML as the standard for conveying structured content, XSLT is becoming something of a lingua franca - a common tongue - that developers in this space are learning, and are finding in that learning that by intelligent application of that XSLT that particular skill is cleanly transferable from a Linux box running Apache using PHP and a Windows box running IIS and ASP.NET.



XSLT 2 is not a new language - it is XSLT cleaned up to handle the areas it should have been capable of handling before, with much less verbosity, more integration, more power and a considerably easier development and maintenance path. This means that the learning curve for those developers going from XSLT to XSLT 2 will be much less extreme than having to learn another language in toto. This in turn means that within a space of a couple of years, if not less, XSLT2 will likely be just another core skill that a developer should have, yet one that helps them write platform and language neutral code for dealing with all of the XML that is even now circulating through your business. With skilled programmers in any area once again beginning to demand a premium, the coming ubiquity of XSLT2 skills should help keep your labor costs down not just in your web development department, but throughout your organization.



/EndTag


There's a tendency of late for writers in the XML space to want to play down some of the more recent standards from the W3C, a tendency to go "ho-hum, it's just the sequel". I think this attitude can blind people to what is actually happening. XSLT 1.0 was a uniquely different and powerful solution, and after having worked with it on an almost daily basis for nearly the last decade my respect for its innovation has only grown. However, even four years ago I felt that it wasn't powerful enough, and the amount of customization on the part of XSLT processor vendors over the last several years to me is testament to that. XSLT 2.0 is not profoundly different from XSLT 1.0 - it's in fact almost completely backwards compatible.



It does, however, rectify the shortcomings that emerged from the first iteration of the language, and does so in a way to make it an astonishingly powerful language. History is full of such standards, such as SQL, where it took one or two iterations to handle the inevitable discovery process that is part of any great human endeavor. This tool, XSLT, is already becoming one of the core work-horses in most contemporary applications, even given that it was never originally conceived to do what it is called for. To move forward to a version improved by half a decade of insight and exploration is not only logical, it's good business.

784 comments:

«Oldest   ‹Older   601 – 784 of 784
best home business said...

Hi Kurt

When I saw The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 I had to read a little more.

Later,

best home based business idea help

My Bonus Area said...

legitimate work from home jobs,http://allmyvista.com,legitimate work from home jobs

free downloads of software, php scripts, audio, ebooks and seminar interviews. Make work from home incredibly easy

legitimate work from home jobs

http://allmyvista.com

legitimate work from home jobs

work from home based business said...

I found your blog while surfing and noticed you are involved in a business opportunity.

I found a website the other day that offers thousands of dollars in free business building tools that might help you build your business.

Find FREE - 60,000 email leads, AutoResponder, Promo Page, Your listing in a hundreds of world directories, Your best ad on 12 Million FFAs, Self-Replicating Search Engine Program, Auto Hits Machine, eZine Success, & more!.

I'm making over $500 a day with these FREE Business Building Tools promoting my business and you can do the same promoting your business.

My Bonus Area said...

home based work,http://allmyvista.com,home based work

free downloads of software, php scripts, audio, ebooks and seminar interviews. Make work from home incredibly easy

home based work

http://allmyvista.com

home based work

blog submitter said...

We Offer The best methods to get top google position to learn more please
click the next link http://www.manifestingpower.com/search-engine-positioning.html



http://www.manifestingpower.com/search-engine-positioning.html

A Million Dollar Income said...

Your article is most refreshing, while I cannot agree with this point of view, I can understand your point of view. Here is a fabulous website free seminar downloads
that provides you with free software, free php scripts, free ebooks and a ton of other free stuff.
free seminar downloads
http://mybonusarea.com
free seminar downloads


Thank You

RP said...

How I made $77 million in 2-years--and you can too.

Anonymous said...

http://www.365dayz.comOpen365dayz.com is now open. Click http://www.365dayz.com

pre ejaculation said...

Your blog is perfect and nice, we are offering retrogade ejaculation to learn more visit retrogade ejaculation or The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html
retrogade ejaculation http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html

hopi said...

ThankYou

From Hopi
http://ourbannerexchange.com
home based business
home based business

stop premature ejaculation said...

Your blog is perfect and nice, we are offering prevent premature ejaculation to learn more visit prevent premature ejaculation or The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html
prevent premature ejaculation http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html

stop premature ejaculation said...

Your blog is perfect and nice, we are offering stop premature ejaculation to learn more visit stop premature ejaculation or The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html
stop premature ejaculation http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html

home based business idea said...

Hi Kurt

When I saw The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 I had to read a little more.

Later,

best home based business help

sex problem said...

Your blog is perfect and nice, we are offering premature ejaculation treatment to learn more visit premature ejaculation treatment or The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html
premature ejaculation treatment http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html

best home based business idea said...

Hi Kurt

When I saw The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 I had to read a little more.

Later,

best home business help

ejaculation said...

Your blog is perfect and nice, we are offering sexual enhancement to learn more visit sexual enhancement or The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html
sexual enhancement http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html

sexual problem said...

Your blog is perfect and nice, we are offering sexual problem to learn more visit sexual problem or The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html
sexual problem http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html

sexual enhancement said...

Your blog is perfect and nice, we are offering retrogade ejaculation to learn more visit retrogade ejaculation or The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html
retrogade ejaculation http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html

Build Page Rank said...

Link Trading and 3 way link trading. Now it is hard enough to figure out who you traded with, did the site you trade with count for you or not, then you add in 3 way linking. I think this requires a partnership of sorts. Finding 1 other person to do this with you. Even with 2 people it can get confusing. If you find a great site to add your link to who gets the link posted, etc. seo

Build Page Rank said...

Link Trading and 3 way link trading. Now it is hard enough to figure out who you traded with, did the site you trade with count for you or not, then you add in 3 way linking. I think this requires a partnership of sorts. Finding 1 other person to do this with you. Even with 2 people it can get confusing. If you find a great site to add your link to who gets the link posted, etc. seo

stop premature ejaculation said...

Your blog is perfect and nice, we are offering premature ejaculation treatment to learn more visit premature ejaculation treatment or The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html
premature ejaculation treatment http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html

blog000111 said...

Many show a lot of interests in your blog which offers a great deal of information and discussion. Feel free to surf this online business site which has much of the online business related stuff, or visit these reseller, register domain, free website, and cheap hosting sites!

bloggggggs said...

Many show a lot of interests in your blog which offers a great deal of information and discussion. Feel free to surf this home business site which has much of the home business related stuff, or visit these reseller, register domain, free website, and cheap hosting sites!

free work at home program said...

While out surfing today for specific info on work at home typist, I ended up on your page. I will bookmark your site for a future visit, and should you ever need it, there is plenty of information on this site about work at home typist.

ejaculation control said...

Your blog is perfect and nice, we are offering stop premature ejaculation to learn more visit stop premature ejaculation or this post http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html
stop premature ejaculation http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html

Build Page Rank said...

Here is my SEO Tip. Get the software that is available now and start making your site grow on the net. There are many self proclaimed who sound very convincing. What I have found out is the best SEO experts are the individual who work at their own sites using 3 main techniques: 1. Finding a way to add fresh content to their site on a daily basis. 2. Using SEO friendly forums or shopping carts to make your site huge 3. Link building. One way links, traded links and 3 way linking on SEO friendly sites. There are tools available now that allow people to do these on their own. Thanks! SEO Tips

Anonymous said...

I really like your belair related blog site. I have a belair related web site at belair. If you're into belair. You will want to check it out.

Car Loans Home said...

I just came across your blog and wanted to drop you a note telling you how impressed I was with the information you have posted here.
I also have a web site & blog about car loan indianapolis
so I know what I'm talking about when I say your site is top-notch! Keep up the great work!

sexual enhancement said...

Your blog is perfect and nice, we are offering prevent premature ejaculation to learn more visit prevent premature ejaculation or The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html
prevent premature ejaculation http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html

Acne Cure said...

I just came across your blog and wanted to drop you a note telling you how impressed I was with the information you have posted here.
I also have a web site & blog about acne picture so I know what I'm talking about when I say your site is top-notch! Keep up the great work!

premature ejaculation help said...

Your blog is perfect and nice, we are offering premature ejaculation to learn more visit premature ejaculation or The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html
premature ejaculation http://www.manifestingpower.com/premature-ejaculation.html

Acne Relief said...

You have an interesting blog. I just came across it. Thank you.

If you have any kind of acne, even very severe acne, there is nothing you will find that works better to clear your complexion than our revolutionary anti-oxident! You can find acne relief here.

Thanks!

Anonymous said...

MOVIES,HBO and SHOW TIME: Hey Guys, I found a cool site that Saves me a bunch on Premium Movie Channels. Beats My Cable Hands Down, and it's ALL DIGITAL. Check this site out .**Movies**

All about Golf said...

Hi thanks for your blog, I liked it! I also have a blog/site about golf news that covers golf news related stuff. Please feel free to visit.

Bruce said...

I have just bookmarked you,Top Blog! Finding the right Home Equity or Refinance Loan can be quite frustrating. I found 2 sites that make the process quite painless. Centex Home Equity & http://www.findlowermortgagerates.info

Paul88888 said...

You have generated a lot of interest in your blog. It contains a great deal of discussion. Feel free to surf the following sites web site hosting reseller, domain name, domain reselling, au domain and free website!

blog000111 said...

You have generated a lot of interest in your blog. It contains a great deal of discussion. Feel free to surf the following sites hosting, domain name, domain reseller, au domain and free website!

Paul88888 said...

You have generated a lot of interest in your blog. It contains a great deal of discussion. Feel free to surf the following sites domain resale, domain name, domain reselling, au domain and free website!

Paul88888 said...

You have generated a lot of interest in your blog. It contains a great deal of discussion. Feel free to surf the following sites home based business, domain name, domain reselling, au domain and free website!

Clickbank Directory said...

Hey, you have a great blog here! I'm definitely going to bookmark you!
I have a Clickbank Directory Solutions Marketplace
Feel free to come on over and search for clickbank products

doc said...

Hey I agree 100% agree with the last few comments. This blog has great opinions and this is why I continue to visit, thanks! ##link#

doc said...

Hey I agree 100% agree with the last few comments. This blog has great opinions and this is why I continue to visit, thanks! ##link#

Credit Center said...

I just came across your blog and wanted to drop you a note telling you how impressed I was with the information you have posted here.
I also have a web site & blog about credit cards for bad credit so I know what I'm talking about when I say your site is top-notch! Keep up the great work!

Acne Cure said...

Hi, Thanks for your interesting blog. I will keep reading.
Please take the time to visit my following blogs about Acne:
proactive acne treatment blog.
best acne treatment blog.
acne scar treatment blog.
laser acne treatment blog.

Anonymous said...

My wife and I enjoy swinger personal ads. We decided to put together a site to help others who are interested in swinger personal ads. We hope you will check out our web site swinger personal ads Look for us. Our nick is "sdray69". CYA there!

Handbag Express said...

Hello, just browsing around and thought I would peek at your blog also thought it would be a great opportunity to highly recommend both of these sites with spectacular deals. Grand Openings at **www.handbagexpress.com** for the ultmate handbag selections, and don't miss out on **www.VegasTours.com**for Spectacular Grand Canyon Vacation Tours, you will agree the offers are Super incredible after visiting. Thanks and have a great day.

Anonymous said...

I recently came accross your site site while searching for information on money. Did not find the info on money which is what I was really searching for, but found your site to be rather informative.

Great if you can pop over to my site some day http://www.ultimate-money-typhoon.ebizempires.com/

answer-man said...

enjoyed the subject matter on your blog. I have some super great shopping malls to share please take a moment to see which one you like the best.
www.Christmas-Mall-Online.com
www.ShopBeachCity.com
www.American-Shopping-Mall.com
www.tshirtapperal.com
www.biblemediadvd.com
www.bibledvdonine.com
www.handbagexpress.com
www.vegastours.com
www.satellie-dish-network-tv-movies.com
Be sure and take advantage of the great values available. Enjoy!

Grand Canyon Tours By Vegas Tours said...

Hi, The theme of your blog made me curious to stop by and check out your blog, its interesting. Feel free to check out my new site for when you get a chance It has all kinds of stuff for The **Grand Canyon** The new website is: **www.vegastours.com** Have a Nice Day and enjoy!

Anonymous said...

My wife and I enjoy swinger. We decided to put together a site to help others who are interested in swinger. We hope you will check out our web site swinger Look for us. Our nick is "sdray69". CYA there!

internet cash said...

Hello Kurt, I’m just searching the web for the next big thing on business home mlm opportunity work and noticed your great site. Although this post wasn’t actually what I was looking for it DID get my attention and interest. I see now why I found your great
website when I was searching for business home mlm opportunity work related information and I’m thankful I found your blogsite even though its not an exact match. Excellent Post, thanks for the read (It’s a keeper).

Make Money Online said...

... But if You want to make some money at home on affiliate marketing online then You should Discover My Secret, how to earn $1000 a week with 15 minutes of Your Time.

Best regards to You
Mike from blog Make money online




Fast Cash Fast Cash
Quick Cash Quick Cash
Make Money at Home Make Money at Home
Affiliate Marketing Affiliate Marketing
Make Money Online Make Money Online
Make Money Make Money
Making Money Making Money
seks video seks video
seks seks


P.S. I like Your Site.

homebiz7.com said...

Hello Kurt, I’m out surfing the web for the latest information on homebiz7.com and noticed your nice site. Although The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 wasn’t exactly what I was looking for it certainly got my attention. Now I see why I found your page when I was looking for homebiz7.com related information and I’m thrilled I found your web site even though its not a perfect match. Great Post, thanks for your informative site.

Grand Canyon Tours By Vegas Tours said...

Hello, your blog was interesting, in return I would like to share my information on **Grand Canyon Tours** VegasTours.Com is offering Incredible prices on **Grand Canyon Helicopter** and **Grand Canyon Airplane Tours** Stop by when you get a chance and visit us at **www.VegasTours.com** Have a great day.

40biz.com said...

Excellent site, take a look at my add link marketing network site, maybe we
can exchange ideas? Keep up the good work. add link marketing network

Anonymous said...

Hey ##NAME##, This is the first time I've seen your blog - pretty cool. I find this whole blogging thing pretty amazing. So many, and such good stuff. Mind you, technical info about digicams is my thing, which is why I was looking for ##LINK##, but it was good to see your blog. Keep blogging!

workathome.com said...

Hello Kurt, I’m out surfing the web for the latest information on marketing network and noticed your nice site. Although The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 wasn’t exactly what I was looking for it certainly got my attention. Now I see why I found your page when I was looking for marketing network related information and I’m thrilled I found your web site even though its not a perfect match. Great Post, thanks for your informative site.

superlong said...

Cool site on bump on penis Check out my Penis Enlargement

Anonymous said...

Good day ##NAME##, Well I don't know what time it will be when you see this. Really interesting blog you've got there. Pretty cool stuff. Keep writing and keep it coming. Rex ##LINK##

company marketing network top said...

Hello Kurt, I’m just searching the web for the next big thing on network marketing and noticed your great site. Although The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 wasn’t actually what I was looking for it DID get my attention and interest. I see now why I found your great
website when I was searching for network marketing related information and I’m thankful I found your blogsite even though its not an exact match. Excellent Post, thanks for the read (It’s a keeper).

superlong said...

Cool site on uncircumsized penis Check out my Penis Enlargement

Advertising Center said...

Hey, you have a great blog here! I'm definitely going to bookmark you!

I have a internet marketing advertising
site/blog. It pretty much covers internet marketing advertising
related stuff.

Come and check it out if you get time :-)

based business home mlm opportunity said...

Hi Kurt, I’m out searching the web for the latest and greatest information on work from homw and found your great site. Although this post wasn’t specifically what I was looking for it definitely got my interest and attention. I see now why I found your interesting blog when I was looking for work from homw related information and I’m grateful I found your site even though its not a perfect match. Great Post, thanks for your informative site

Anonymous said...

Keep up the good work with this blog!

superlong said...

Cool site on uncircumcised penis Check out my Penis Enlargement

19work.com said...

Hello Kurt, I’m out surfing the web for the latest information on mlm lead and noticed your nice site. Although The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 wasn’t exactly what I was looking for it certainly got my attention. Now I see why I found your page when I was looking for mlm lead related information and I’m thrilled I found your web site even though its not a perfect match. Great Post, thanks for your informative site.

Anonymous said...

Need panda anti virus gratis software?

If your computer is running stupid panda anti virus gratis will help
Click here to download panda anti virus gratis now!

Winantivirus said...

Hey guys im Jenny And im Bored i have a webcam, im 22 from the UK, If you would like to chat or see me please visit this adult dating ontario personals site

adult dating ontario personals

Nutronix said...

Hi,
I came past your site while I was searching through Blogger, it is not really the information I was after about automated home business but I did stay to read your blog and found it interesting and well done, I do like what you have done with your site. Keep up the good work and hopefully I will visit again sometime and also find the information on automated home business that I was looking for in my travels.
Regards,

Anonymous said...

Hey there, you've got a great blog here!
Did it take you long to set up?
It's taken me quite a few weeks,
The first two templates I didn't like
And now if someone has a long heading
It pushes the main articles way down the page.
It's kind of anoying when that happens.
I have a home business opportunity uk site.
It pretty much covers home business opportunity uk related stuff.
Come and check it out if you get time :-)

internet cash said...

Hey there Kurt, I was looking for an educational blog experience on internet business income opportunity and I found your blog-site. The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 isn’t exactly what I was searching for but it did get my and interest. Now I know why I found your excellent blog-site when I was looking for internet business income opportunity related information and I’m glad I did even though its not an exact find. Great Informative Post, thanks for the read and educational experience.

Anonymous said...

mlm home business has been very good to me lately after finding a company named Jerky Direct. It's only been open to the public for about a year and is growing at over 30% per month so they have to be doing something right! For the small sum of $12 a month you get a website, two bags of jerky delivered to your door, and a boatload of back office tools to grow your business. Corporate can't be any more helpful I even get calls from customer support asking how they can help me grow my business. How many other companies do that? I can't be any happier so I had to tell all of you to check out http://selectjerkydirect.com Thank you for your time :-)

Anonymous said...

Soon to be launched by Google: home based business blog network It covers everything related to the home based business . For instance the Rich Jerk Blog, or the Google Adsense blog. Or maybe you would like the make money now blog. Well, my friend, you are very welcome to view it at your comfort. Regards, Melissa. :)

kerry said...

good to see a blog dealing with credit card issues. Credit cards are a necessity in Western Life. Sadly they can be one of our biggest liabilities. I have a site dealing with credit card management. You might like to take a look

make money online said...

Hi, did you know you can make money online using Google Adsense and clickbank.com totally for free? Come see bestinternetearnings.com

personal finance mlm said...

Hi Kurt, I’m out searching the web for the latest and greatest information on marketing network opportunity and found your great site. Although The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 wasn’t specifically what I was looking for it definitely got my interest and attention. I see now why I found your interesting blog when I was looking for marketing network opportunity related information and I’m grateful I found your site even though its not a perfect match. Great Post, thanks for your informative site

75future.com said...

Hello Kurt, I’m out surfing the web for the latest information on 5careers.com and noticed your nice site. Although The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 wasn’t exactly what I was looking for it certainly got my attention. Now I see why I found your page when I was looking for 5careers.com related information and I’m thrilled I found your web site even though its not a perfect match. Great Post, thanks for your informative site.

Dream Builder said...

Hi there! Need lead generation's? I have found a proven
method anyone can implement to very easily earn an extra $500, $1,000 or even
$5,000+ every single week, with only 15 to 30 minutes of your time, and create a
significant ongoing monthly income. This method is a no-nonsense, set it and
forget it system, which will virtually run on 100% autopilot. People just like
you are earning enough money to quit their jobs within the first month. Stop
worrying about the bills, cancel your daily commute, never leave your family for
a job that is making someone else rich, and start living your life the way YOU
choose! New fail-safe system virtually runs 100% on autopilot. Just set it and
forget it!- Check it out lead generation 
lead generation

12income said...

Hello Kurt, I’m just searching the web for the next big thing on internet home business idea and noticed your great site. Although The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 wasn’t actually what I was looking for it DID get my attention and interest. I see now why I found your great
website when I was searching for internet home business idea related information and I’m thankful I found your blogsite even though its not an exact match. Excellent Post, thanks for the read (It’s a keeper).

Anonymous said...

Student Debt Consolidation Debt Consolidation Help can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period

Anonymous said...

Hi, Thank you for having this info on the web. I enjoyed your post. If you may have any interest in
debt consolidation student Loan consolidation
then I know where you may get your solution. For your comfort, I have enclosed the link, so if needed you can visit the site. Thanks again for your lovely blog

adaware said...

Hello there Kurt, I’m out surfing for a good blog
experience on free adware and found your great site.
Although this post wasn’t exactly what I’m looking for
it certainly got my attention and interest. I see now
why I found your excellent blog-site when I was
searching for free adware related web sites and I’m
glad I found your site even though its not an exact
match. I’ll leave you with a good quote from Walter F.
Mondale - "What do we want our kids to do? Sweep up
around Japanese computers? " -- Walter F. Mondale
Excellent Post, thank you for the read.

homebiz5.com said...

Hey there Kurt, I was looking for an educational blog experience on 28income.com and I found your blog-site. The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 isn’t exactly what I was searching for but it did get my and interest. Now I know why I found your excellent blog-site when I was looking for 28income.com related information and I’m glad I did even though its not an exact find. Great Informative Post, thanks for the read and educational experience.

incbizz said...

Click On The Link Below To Get Free Info On Safelist Marketing Techniques. Its Free Info What Do You Have To Lose!
safelist advertising safelist advertising http://www.mysafelistnews.com

incbizz said...

Click On The Link Below To Get Free Info On Safelist Marketing Techniques. Its Free Info What Do You Have To Lose!
safelist marketing safelist marketing http://www.mysafelistnews.com

James Baker said...

Hey Fellow, you have a great blog here! I have a web
site & blog about games center.
Yours is top-notch!
If you have a moment, please visit my site
games center
I wish you all the best!

James Baker said...

Hey Fellow, you have a great blog here! I have a web
site & blog about games center.
Yours is top-notch!
If you have a moment, please visit my site
games center
I wish you all the best!

homebiz1 said...

Hi there Kurt, I’m out surfing for the latest information on 5careers.com and found your great site. Although The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 wasn’t exactly what I was looking for it certainly peaked my interest. Now I see why I found your page when I was looking for 5careers.com related information and I’m happy I found your wine blog even though this isn’t a perfect match. Great Post, thanks for the read,

incbizz said...

Click On The Link Below To Get Free Info On Safelist Marketing Techniques. Its Free Info What Do You Have To Lose!
safelist safelist http://www.mysafelistnews.com

Anonymous said...

Student Consolidation
Debt Consolidation Loan can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period

Student Consolidation
Debt Consolidation Loan can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period

Student Consolidation
Debt Consolidation Loan can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period

Anonymous said...

Student Consolidation
Debt Consolidation Loan can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period

Student Consolidation
Debt Consolidation Loan can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period

Student Consolidation
Debt Consolidation Loan can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period

Anonymous said...

I have a pre-approved offer for a credit card charging 0 percent interest on balance transfers for 12 months. I am paying a balance at a high rate on another bad credit credit card Should I take the offer ? Tour help is appreciated

Anonymous said...

Lost in the credit card junlgle? Keep your cool and apply online for credit card. A hassle free way to your credit card.

marketing network opportunity said...

Hello there Kurt, I’m out surfing for a good blog experience on homebiz7.com and found your great site. Although The Business Case for XSLT 2.0 wasn’t exactly what I’m looking for it certainly got my attention and interest. I see now why I found your excellent blog-site when I was searching for homebiz7.com related web sites and I’m glad I found your site even though its not an exact match. Excellent Post, thank you for the read.

Anonymous said...

Student Consolidation
Debt Consolidation Loan can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period

Student Consolidation
Debt Consolidation Loan can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period

Student Consolidation
Debt Consolidation Loan can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period

make money online free! said...

Do you want to know everything about work at home based business opportunity ? Then read all about it on www.bestinternetearnings.com and make money!

BlogDawg1 said...

I am conducting some research on various cash advance sites and ran across this page. Even though it wasn't "exactly" what I was looking for, I think your readers might be interested in reading my cash advance reviews at Payday Loan Reviews. As you know, the more information people have before spending their hard earned money -- the better. Sorry for the self promotion, just trying to get the word out while look for sites to review. On to the next -- thanks!

Anonymous said...

Salut a tous, si vous etes a la recherche d'une opportunite de business dans le domaine: telecom, pas contraignant, et sans besoin de vous deplacer, je vous recommande de vous lancer dans le callback telephonique.
En effet, je suis tombee sur un site tres interessant:"miamitelecom", qui propose des partenariats dans ce domaine, sans ou presque, apport financier initial.
Pour ceux qui ne connaissent pas, le callback est un systeme de code ou de cartes telephoniques (au choix), qui permet de telephoner a l'etranger a tres bas prix!!
Ces avantages: -1 seul numero utilisable a partir de n'importe quel telephone, n'importe ou dans le monde. Ceci est tres avantageux pour les personnes qui voyagent beaucoup du fait de leur travail, ou pour celles vivant dans un pays pas tres developpe en matiere de telecommunication par exemple.
- communication tres nette, contrairement au VOIP (=par liaison internet, ce qui n'est pas du tout satisfaisant!!)
- Beaucoup moins couteux qu'un appel classic
- C'est vous qui decidez combien et quand vous voulez recharger en terme de temps de communication ( par le biais de carte bancaire ou autre)
En ce qui me concerne, j'en fais l'experience en ce moment, et c'est un secteur en pleine expansion ( je distribue des acces surtout a des chefs d'entreprises, parcourrant la planete, ce qui leur permet d'etre joint a n'importe quel moment sur un meme numero!)
Je cible surtout l'Afrique en g?n?ral, et j'ai vu mon chiffre d'affaires exploser en quelques mois!
Si vous etes interesses, vous pouvez contacter Mr Corona de ma part (johanna), par mail a l'adresse suivante:www.callback@miamitelecom.com
Pour plus d'informations, vous pouvez aussi vous referer au site : http://www.miamitelecom.com
Je vous recommande de vous y interesser, cela peut vous rapporter gros!!!
Pour finir, et juste pour info, la societe a ouvert un autre departement qui vaut le detour: http://www.miamicall.us toujours dans : telecom
Bien a vous.
Cordialement.

Min Bannister said...

Love the articles you are publishing about dog training.
Maybe someone might be interested in looking at my Dog Training Linux site sometime.

Min.

Anonymous said...

Got a response before I could finish my sandwich. Apply online for credit cards here and get approved very fast, just like me.

afghan horsemen restaurant said...

This is an excellent blog. Keep it going.You are providing
a great resource on the Internet here!
If you have a moment, please take a look at my afghan horsemen restaurant site.
Have a great week!

afghan horsemen restaurant said...

This is an excellent blog. Keep it going.You are providing
a great resource on the Internet here!
If you have a moment, please take a look at my afghan horsemen restaurant site.
Have a great week!

afghan horsemen restaurant said...

This is an excellent blog. Keep it going.You are providing
a great resource on the Internet here!
If you have a moment, please take a look at my afghan horsemen restaurant site.
Have a great week!

Anonymous said...

Debt Settlement
Debt Relief can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period
http://www.debt1consolidation.com
Debt Settlement
Debt Relief can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period
http://www.debt1consolidation.com

Anonymous said...

Congrats on your blog. Very informative and a pleasure to read. If you're interested thought you might like to take a look at my website which is based on Home Based Business Opportunity. Let me know what you think.

cbhorsebetting said...

Hey, you have a great blog for internet business here! I'm definitely going to bookmark you for this content!

I have an interesting site related to internet business. It pretty much covers business related stuff.

Come and check out the internet home business website if you get time :-)

Thanks and Get More Than You Expect With
Bunny S.
Internet Home Based Business

Debt Consolidation Refinance said...

This blog is nice, I like it. This site car insurance rate is a good place for people who are looking for car insurance rate. They will give you answers to your questions. It is well worth the time to check out even if you don't take advantage of all that they have to offer. "|"

mjfreeze said...

Great News! Anyone thinking about going into business for themselves, or wanting to expand an existing business should check out the world's largest source of business grants and government business loans.

Anonymous said...

Debt Settlement
Debt Relief can help you reduce your interest burden by charging an interest rate lower than the rate on your existing loans. Debt consolidation loan can also allow you to make small monthly payments by extending the loan period
http://www.debt-consolidation.com

Ad Blaster said...

All the best on one site, just as good as this blog, please visit when you can.dating fish online personals plentydating fish online personals plenty

incbizz said...

Now You Can Easily Generate The Steady Flow Of Taffic Needed To Get The Results You Want. This Is One Of The Internet's Most Proven Traffic Generating Tools Ever Used. You Will Be Using The Very Same Tool That The Top Internet Marketers Use Every Day To Send There Sales Through The Roof And Build Those Huge Money Making Lists safelist marketing campaigns

p said...

http://www.idesirefreedom.com/home based business canada
***Hi, this is Paul. I found this great way of getting phone verified leads FREE.
Discover how you can use the same Million Dollar Recruiting System that I use at NO-CHARGE ,
for the first 30 days! Plus, get a FREE 23-Page Report Called:
�My Million Dollar MLM Recruiting System!�***

http://www.idesirefreedom.com/

incbizz said...

Now You Can Easily Generate The Steady Flow Of Taffic Needed To Get The Results You Want. This Is One Of The Internet's Most Proven Traffic Generating Tools Ever Used. You Will Be Using The Very Same Tool That The Top Internet Marketers Use Every Day To Send There Sales Through The Roof And Build Those Huge Money Making Lists safelist marketing

p said...

http://www.idesirefreedom.com/
--Hi, this is Paul. I found this great way of getting phone verified leads FREE. Discover how you can use the same Million Dollar Recruiting System that I use at NO-CHARGE, for the first 30 days! Plus, get a FREE 23-Page Report Called:
�Million Dollar MLM Recruiting System!�

http://www.idesirefreedom.com/
multilevel marketing

incbizz said...

Now You Can Easily Generate The Steady Flow Of Taffic Needed To Get The Results You Want. This Is One Of The Internet's Most Proven Traffic Generating Tools Ever Used. You Will Be Using The Very Same Tool That The Top Internet Marketers Use Every Day To Send There Sales Through The Roof And Build Those Huge Money Making Lists safelist advertising

incbizz said...

Now You Can Easily Generate The Steady Flow Of Taffic Needed To Get The Results You Want. This Is One Of The Internet's Most Proven Traffic Generating Tools Ever Used. You Will Be Using The Very Same Tool That The Top Internet Marketers Use Every Day To Send There Sales Through The Roof And Build Those Huge Money Making Lists ad submitter

Anonymous said...

Start getting points at electronics, games, music and more, get your chase sony card visa today.

Anonymous said...

Life is great out here in Mauritius. Plesant weather, good breeze and what more I got a great card offer from credit cards

Abnormaltalent-bos said...

Hey there, your blog is great! Maybe you'll be interested about Pre Paid Cell Phones so just visit it if you have time.

Anonymous said...

Debt1consolidation.com entails taking out one loan to pay off many others. This is often done to secure a lower interest rate secure a fixed interest rate or for the convenience of servicing only one loan.

Debt consolidation can simply be from a number of unsecured loans into another unsecured loan, but more often it involves a secured loan against an asset that serves as collateral, which is most commonly a house (in this case a mortgage is secured against the house.) The collateralization of the loan allows a lower interest rate than without it, because by collateralizing, the asset owner agrees to allow the forced sale (foreclosure) of the asset to pay back the loan. The risk to the lender is reduced so the interest rate offered is lower.

Sometimes, debt consolidation companies can discount the amount of the loan. When the debtor is in danger of bankruptcy, the debt consolidator will buy the loan at a discount. A prudent debtor can shop around for consolidators who will pass along some of the savings. Consolidation can affect the ability of the debtor to discharge debts in bankruptcy, so the decision to consolidate must be weighed carefully.

Debt consolidation is often advisable in theory when someone is paying credit card debt. Credit cards can carry a much larger interest rate than even an unsecured loan from a bank. Debtors with property such as a home or car may get a lower rate through a secured loan using their property as collateral Then the total interest and the total cash flow paid towards the debt is lower allowing the debt to be paid off sooner, incurring less interest. In practice, many people are in credit card debt because they spend more than their income. If that habit continues, the consolidation will not benefit them much because they will simply increase their credit card balances again.

Because of the theoretical advantage that debt consolidation offers a consumer that has high interest debt balances, companies can take advantage of that benefit of refinancing to charge very high fees in the debt consolidation loan. Sometimes these fees are near the state maximum for mortgage fees. In addition, some unscrupulous companies will knowingly wait until a client has backed themselves into a corner and must refinance in order to consolidate and pay off bills that they are behind on the payments. If the client does not refinance they may lose their house, so they are willing to pay any allowable fee to complete the debt consolidation. In some cases the situation is that the client does not have enough time to shop for another lender with lower fees and may not even be fully aware of them. This practice is known as predatory lending Certainly many, if not most, debt consolidation transactions do not involve predatory lending.

In the United States, federal student loans are consolidated somewhat differently, as federal student loans are guaranteed by the U.S. government. In a federal student loan consolidation, existing loans are purchased and closed by a loan consolidation company or by the Department of Education (depending on what type of federal student loan the borrower holds). Interest rates for the consolidation are based on that year's student loan rate, which is in turn based on the 91-day Treasury bill rate at the last auction in May of each calendar year.

Student loan rates can fluctuate from the current low of 4.70% to a maximum of 8.25% for federal Stafford loans 9% for PLUS loans. The current consolidation program allows students to consolidate once with a private lender, and reconsolidate again only with the Department of Education. Upon consolidation, a fixed interest rate is set based on the then-current interest rate. Reconsolidating does not change that rate. If the student combines loans of different types and rates into one new consolidation loan, a weighted average calculation will establish the appropriate rate based on the then-current interest rates of the different loans being consolidated together.

Federal student loan consolidation is often referred to as refinancing, which is incorrect because the loan rates are not changed, merely locked in. Unlike private sector debt consolidation, student loan consolidation does not incur any fees for the borrower; private companies make money on student loan consolidation by reaping subsidies from the federal government.

Student loan consolidation can be beneficial to students' credit rating, but it's important to note that not all federal student loan consolidation companies report their loans to all credit bureaus; SLM Corporation (formerly Sallie Mae) does not report to Experian or Transunion which means that students will have differing credit scores at Equifax Transunion, and Experian.

Credit as a financial term, used in such terms as credit card refers to the granting of a loan and the creation of debt. Any movement of financial capital is normally quite dependent on credit, which in turn is dependent on the reputation or creditworthiness of the entity which takes responsibility for the funds.

A similar usage is in commercial trade where credit is used to refer to the approval for delayed payments for goods purchased. Sometimes if a person has financial instability or difficulty, credit is not granted. Companies frequently offer credit to their customers as part of the terms of a purchase agreement. Organizations that offer credit to their customers frequently employ a credit manager

Credit is denominated by a unit of account Unlike money (by a strict definition), credit itself cannot act as a unit of account. However, many forms of credit can readily act as a medium of exchange As such, various forms of credit are frequently referred to as money and are included in estimates of the money supply

Credit is also traded in the market The purest form is the "Credit Default Swap" market, which is essentially a traded market in credit insurance. A credit default swap represents the price at which two counterparties will exchange this risk — the protection "seller" takes the risk of default of the credit in return for a payment, commonly denoted in basis points (one basis point being 1/100 of a percent) of the notional amount to be referenced, while the protection "buyer" pays this premium and in the case of default of the underlying (a loan, bond or other receivable), delivers this receivable to the protection seller and receives from the seller the par amount ( i.e., is made whole).

Credit Education is the practice of providing consumers with information analyzing their credit behavior. Credit education is usually practiced by trained professionals knowledgeable in the analytics of the credit score and how consumer credit behavior effects both positive and negative credit eligibility. Credit education is usually assisted by sophisticated credit scoring models that mathematically assists the consumer, or counselor, in determining a credit improvement outcome.

Credit Education has become an increasingly practiced discipline due to sweeping increases in the use of the credit score and its affect on the prices consumers pay for loans, insurance, housing and utilities. It is also the major factor in loan eligibility.

Not to be confused with credit counseling credit education does not focus on debt counseling, nor involves the practice of collecting debt from consumers. Credit counseling and credit repair have consistently received negative publicity for its fee and management practices.

The largest suppliers for credit education data are Fair Isaac Corporation, CreditXpert and the three credit bureaus ( Experian, TransUnion and Equifax who deliver credit reports and credit scores. Among the largest providers of credit education services is Community Empower who, through the use of its own scoring models and national network of credit education counselors, provides consumers hands-on guidance using highly-trained local professionals.

Credit education has also received attention as a new discipline at the Community College level where new courses on the subject are being taught. Usually aligned with Mortgage Finance programs that teach college undergraduates principles of lending and underwriting credit education and credit recovery programs are giving students more extensive backgrounds in credit early in their careers. Among the early college level adoptors of credit education is the Los Angeles Community College District and Los Angeles Trade Technical College.

FICO is an acronym for Fair Isaac Corporation (traded publicly under the symbol FIC) and refers to the best-known credit score model in the United States, which is calculated using mathematical formulae developed by this company. The FICO score is primarily used in the consumer banking and credit industry. Banks and other institutions that use scores as a factor in their lending decisions may deny credit, charge higher interest rates or require more extensive income and asset verification if the applicants credit score is low.

FICO scores are designed to indicate the likelihood of a borrower being delinquent within the next 24 months. No public information is available to determine what the scores mean in terms of statistics. A separate score, BNI, is used to indicate likelihood of bankruptcy.

The three major credit reporting agencies (also often, but inaccurately referred to as credit bureaus) in the United States, Equifax, Experianand TransUnion calculate their own credit scores, which go by different trademark names as well as many different versions of the score (often differing because of what they are meant to predict and when they were written): Beacon, Beacon 96, and Pinnacle are all available only from Equifax; Empirica, Empirica Auto 95, Precision Score, and Precision 03 at TransUnion; and Fair Isaac Risk Score at Experian. These versions, while all developed for the agencies by Fair Isaac, differ and are periodically updated to reflect current consumer repayment behavior. The NextGen Scores are the most recent scores, but creditors vary in which version they prefer to use.

The scores use a multiple scorecard design. Each version uses 10 or more individual scorecards, and an individual is typically compared with similar others. (For example, a borrower with two 30-day late payments will be scored against a population with some minor delinquencies.) An individual is then graded according to what variables seem to indicate a repayment risk in that group. This feature may cause a borrower with delinquencies to score in the same range as a borrower without delinquencies.

Nearly all large banks also build and use their own proprietary statistical models for credit scoring purposes, often in conjunction with the FICO score or other outside scores.

The statistical models that generate credit scores are subject to federal regulations. The Federal Reserve Board's Regulation B, which implements the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, expressly prohibits a credit scoring model from considering any prohibited basis such as race, color, religion, national origin, sex, or marital status. Regulation B also stipulates that credit scoring models must be empirically derived and statistically sound. Furthermore, if an adverse action is taken as a result of the credit score ( e.g. an individual's application for credit is denied) then specific reasons for the denial must be provided to the individual. A statement that the individual "failed to score high enough" is insufficient; the reasons must be specific.

There exist several generally accepted algorithms for extracting the primary contributing factors to a low credit score. One or more of these algorithms is typically used to supply a list of reasons when a loan applicant has been denied credit, in order to satisfy the Regulation B requirement that specific reasons are disclosed. Some consumers feel these adverse action reasons are somewhat disingenuous, as the only determining factor for credit denials is a numeric score — the "reasons" are summed up only for the consumer.

Each of the credit reporting agencies has developed its own version of the credit score intended to compete with Fair Isaac's score. Although not as widely used, these scores (for example Trans Union's "TransRisk" score or Experian's "ScoreX" and "PLUS" scores) are less expensive than the FICO score. These scores are often derisively referred to by consumers and lenders as "FAKO" scores, for they do not use official Fair Isaac methodologies. The cost savings of a non-FICO score are tempting to some banks and credit card companies, who need an accurate risk assessment on millions of accounts every year. For ease of use, these scores tend to be mathematically scaled so that they fall in the same general range as the FICO score. Fair Isaac offers scoring models for the U.S ., Canada, and South Africa. It also offers a "Global FICO" for many other countries.

Credit scores are designed to measure the risk of default by taking into account various factors in a person's financial history. Although the exact formulae for calculating credit scores are closely guarded secrets, Fair Isaac has disclosed the following components and the approximate weighted contribution of each:

35% punctuality of payment in the past (only includes payments later than 30 days past due)
30% capacity used: the ratio of current revolving debt (credit card balances, etc.) to total available revolving credit (credit limits)
15% length of credit history
10% types of credit used (installment revolving consumer finance
10% recent search for credit and/or amount of credit obtained recently
The above percentages provide very limited guidance in understanding a credit score. For example, the 10% of the score allocated to "types of credit used" is undefined, leaving consumers unaware what type of credit mix to pursue. "Length of credit history" is also a murky concept; it consists of multiple factors - two being the oldest account open and the average length of time an account has been open. Although only 35% is attributed to punctuality, if a consumer is substantially late on numerous accounts, his score will fall far more than 35%. Bankruptcies, foreclosures, and judgments affect scores substantially, but are not included in the simplistic pie chart provided by Fair Isaac.

Further, Fair Isaac does not use the same "scorecard" for everyone. The scorecards are segmented so that there are over 100 different actual scoring models that are applied to different individuals based on different ranges of input values (some scorecard segmentations include: age, depth of credit history, etc.) The implications of this segmentation are that while the approximate weighted contribution above may be an average across all scorecards, individuals will receive different scores or weightings based on the scorecard segmentation that they fall into. Some consumers have noticed their scores decreasing by small amounts for no apparent reason.

Current income and employment history do not influence the FICO score, but they are weighed when applying for credit. For instance, an unemployed individual with no other sources of income will not usually be approved for a home mortgage, regardless of his or her FICO score.

There are other special factors which can weigh on the FICO score.

Any monies owed because of a court judgment, tax lien, or similar carry an additional negative penalty, especially when recent.
Having above a certain number of consumer finance company credit accounts also carries a negative weight (critics say that this causes a vicious cycle, locking people into continuing to use consumer finance companies).
The number of recent credit checks also can weigh down the score, although the credit agencies claim to allow for credit checks made within a certain window of time to not aggregate, so as to allow the consumer to shop around for rates.

A FICO score generally ranges from 300 to 850. It exhibits a left-skewed distribution with a US median around 725. 660 is generally regarded as potentially subprime and represents an important break point for credit worthiness. The performance of the scores is monitored and the scores are periodically aligned so that a credit grantor normally does not need to be concerned about which score card was employed.

Each individual actually has three credit scores for any given scoring model because the three credit agencies hold their own, independent databases. These databases are independent of each other and may contain entirely different data. Many lenders will check an applicant's score from each bureau and use the median score to determine the applicant's credit worthiness.

A new Vantage score has been offered by all three credit bureaus to creditors since spring 2006. It will soon be available to debtors. Its range is from 501 to 990. It is graded A (901-990), B (801-900), C (701-800), D (601-700), and F (501-600). It remains to be seen whether the Vantage Score will replace the FICO score or even be accepted by many creditors.


Debt1consolidation.com entails taking out one loan to pay off many others. This is often done to secure a lower interest rate secure a fixed interest rate or for the convenience of servicing only one loan.

Debt consolidation can simply be from a number of unsecured loans into another unsecured loan, but more often it involves a secured loan against an asset that serves as collateral, which is most commonly a house (in this case a mortgage is secured against the house.) The collateralization of the loan allows a lower interest rate than without it, because by collateralizing, the asset owner agrees to allow the forced sale (foreclosure) of the asset to pay back the loan. The risk to the lender is reduced so the interest rate offered is lower.

Sometimes, debt consolidation companies can discount the amount of the loan. When the debtor is in danger of bankruptcy, the debt consolidator will buy the loan at a discount. A prudent debtor can shop around for consolidators who will pass along some of the savings. Consolidation can affect the ability of the debtor to discharge debts in bankruptcy, so the decision to consolidate must be weighed carefully.

Debt consolidation is often advisable in theory when someone is paying credit card debt. Credit cards can carry a much larger interest rate than even an unsecured loan from a bank. Debtors with property such as a home or car may get a lower rate through a secured loan using their property as collateral Then the total interest and the total cash flow paid towards the debt is lower allowing the debt to be paid off sooner, incurring less interest. In practice, many people are in credit card debt because they spend more than their income. If that habit continues, the consolidation will not benefit them much because they will simply increase their credit card balances again.

Because of the theoretical advantage that debt consolidation offers a consumer that has high interest debt balances, companies can take advantage of that benefit of refinancing to charge very high fees in the debt consolidation loan. Sometimes these fees are near the state maximum for mortgage fees. In addition, some unscrupulous companies will knowingly wait until a client has backed themselves into a corner and must refinance in order to consolidate and pay off bills that they are behind on the payments. If the client does not refinance they may lose their house, so they are willing to pay any allowable fee to complete the debt consolidation. In some cases the situation is that the client does not have enough time to shop for another lender with lower fees and may not even be fully aware of them. This practice is known as predatory lending Certainly many, if not most, debt consolidation transactions do not involve predatory lending.

In the United States, federal student loans are consolidated somewhat differently, as federal student loans are guaranteed by the U.S. government. In a federal student loan consolidation, existing loans are purchased and closed by a loan consolidation company or by the Department of Education (depending on what type of federal student loan the borrower holds). Interest rates for the consolidation are based on that year's student loan rate, which is in turn based on the 91-day Treasury bill rate at the last auction in May of each calendar year.

Student loan rates can fluctuate from the current low of 4.70% to a maximum of 8.25% for federal Stafford loans 9% for PLUS loans. The current consolidation program allows students to consolidate once with a private lender, and reconsolidate again only with the Department of Education. Upon consolidation, a fixed interest rate is set based on the then-current interest rate. Reconsolidating does not change that rate. If the student combines loans of different types and rates into one new consolidation loan, a weighted average calculation will establish the appropriate rate based on the then-current interest rates of the different loans being consolidated together.

Federal student loan consolidation is often referred to as refinancing, which is incorrect because the loan rates are not changed, merely locked in. Unlike private sector debt consolidation, student loan consolidation does not incur any fees for the borrower; private companies make money on student loan consolidation by reaping subsidies from the federal government.

Student loan consolidation can be beneficial to students' credit rating, but it's important to note that not all federal student loan consolidation companies report their loans to all credit bureaus; SLM Corporation (formerly Sallie Mae) does not report to Experian or Transunion which means that students will have differing credit scores at Equifax Transunion, and Experian.

Credit as a financial term, used in such terms as credit card refers to the granting of a loan and the creation of debt. Any movement of financial capital is normally quite dependent on credit, which in turn is dependent on the reputation or creditworthiness of the entity which takes responsibility for the funds.

A similar usage is in commercial trade where credit is used to refer to the approval for delayed payments for goods purchased. Sometimes if a person has financial instability or difficulty, credit is not granted. Companies frequently offer credit to their customers as part of the terms of a purchase agreement. Organizations that offer credit to their customers frequently employ a credit manager

Credit is denominated by a unit of account Unlike money (by a strict definition), credit itself cannot act as a unit of account. However, many forms of credit can readily act as a medium of exchange As such, various forms of credit are frequently referred to as money and are included in estimates of the money supply

Credit is also traded in the market The purest form is the "Credit Default Swap" market, which is essentially a traded market in credit insurance. A credit default swap represents the price at which two counterparties will exchange this risk — the protection "seller" takes the risk of default of the credit in return for a payment, commonly denoted in basis points (one basis point being 1/100 of a percent) of the notional amount to be referenced, while the protection "buyer" pays this premium and in the case of default of the underlying (a loan, bond or other receivable), delivers this receivable to the protection seller and receives from the seller the par amount ( i.e., is made whole).

Credit Education is the practice of providing consumers with information analyzing their credit behavior. Credit education is usually practiced by trained professionals knowledgeable in the analytics of the credit score and how consumer credit behavior effects both positive and negative credit eligibility. Credit education is usually assisted by sophisticated credit scoring models that mathematically assists the consumer, or counselor, in determining a credit improvement outcome.

Credit Education has become an increasingly practiced discipline due to sweeping increases in the use of the credit score and its affect on the prices consumers pay for loans, insurance, housing and utilities. It is also the major factor in loan eligibility.

Not to be confused with credit counseling credit education does not focus on debt counseling, nor involves the practice of collecting debt from consumers. Credit counseling and credit repair have consistently received negative publicity for its fee and management practices.

The largest suppliers for credit education data are Fair Isaac Corporation, CreditXpert and the three credit bureaus ( Experian, TransUnion and Equifax who deliver credit reports and credit scores. Among the largest providers of credit education services is Community Empower who, through the use of its own scoring models and national network of credit education counselors, provides consumers hands-on guidance using highly-trained local professionals.

Credit education has also received attention as a new discipline at the Community College level where new courses on the subject are being taught. Usually aligned with Mortgage Finance programs that teach college undergraduates principles of lending and underwriting credit education and credit recovery programs are giving students more extensive backgrounds in credit early in their careers. Among the early college level adoptors of credit education is the Los Angeles Community College District and Los Angeles Trade Technical College.

FICO is an acronym for Fair Isaac Corporation (traded publicly under the symbol FIC) and refers to the best-known credit score model in the United States, which is calculated using mathematical formulae developed by this company. The FICO score is primarily used in the consumer banking and credit industry. Banks and other institutions that use scores as a factor in their lending decisions may deny credit, charge higher interest rates or require more extensive income and asset verification if the applicants credit score is low.

FICO scores are designed to indicate the likelihood of a borrower being delinquent within the next 24 months. No public information is available to determine what the scores mean in terms of statistics. A separate score, BNI, is used to indicate likelihood of bankruptcy.

The three major credit reporting agencies (also often, but inaccurately referred to as credit bureaus) in the United States, Equifax, Experianand TransUnion calculate their own credit scores, which go by different trademark names as well as many different versions of the score (often differing because of what they are meant to predict and when they were written): Beacon, Beacon 96, and Pinnacle are all available only from Equifax; Empirica, Empirica Auto 95, Precision Score, and Precision 03 at TransUnion; and Fair Isaac Risk Score at Experian. These versions, while all developed for the agencies by Fair Isaac, differ and are periodically updated to reflect current consumer repayment behavior. The NextGen Scores are the most recent scores, but creditors vary in which version they prefer to use.

The scores use a multiple scorecard design. Each version uses 10 or more individual scorecards, and an individual is typically compared with similar others. (For example, a borrower with two 30-day late payments will be scored against a population with some minor delinquencies.) An individual is then graded according to what variables seem to indicate a repayment risk in that group. This feature may cause a borrower with delinquencies to score in the same range as a borrower without delinquencies.

Nearly all large banks also build and use their own proprietary statistical models for credit scoring purposes, often in conjunction with the FICO score or other outside scores.

The statistical models that generate credit scores are subject to federal regulations. The Federal Reserve Board's Regulation B, which implements the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, expressly prohibits a credit scoring model from considering any prohibited basis such as race, color, religion, national origin, sex, or marital status. Regulation B also stipulates that credit scoring models must be empirically derived and statistically sound. Furthermore, if an adverse action is taken as a result of the credit score ( e.g. an individual's application for credit is denied) then specific reasons for the denial must be provided to the individual. A statement that the individual "failed to score high enough" is insufficient; the reasons must be specific.

There exist several generally accepted algorithms for extracting the primary contributing factors to a low credit score. One or more of these algorithms is typically used to supply a list of reasons when a loan applicant has been denied credit, in order to satisfy the Regulation B requirement that specific reasons are disclosed. Some consumers feel these adverse action reasons are somewhat disingenuous, as the only determining factor for credit denials is a numeric score — the "reasons" are summed up only for the consumer.

Each of the credit reporting agencies has developed its own version of the credit score intended to compete with Fair Isaac's score. Although not as widely used, these scores (for example Trans Union's "TransRisk" score or Experian's "ScoreX" and "PLUS" scores) are less expensive than the FICO score. These scores are often derisively referred to by consumers and lenders as "FAKO" scores, for they do not use official Fair Isaac methodologies. The cost savings of a non-FICO score are tempting to some banks and credit card companies, who need an accurate risk assessment on millions of accounts every year. For ease of use, these scores tend to be mathematically scaled so that they fall in the same general range as the FICO score. Fair Isaac offers scoring models for the U.S ., Canada, and South Africa. It also offers a "Global FICO" for many other countries.

Credit scores are designed to measure the risk of default by taking into account various factors in a person's financial history. Although the exact formulae for calculating credit scores are closely guarded secrets, Fair Isaac has disclosed the following components and the approximate weighted contribution of each:

35% punctuality of payment in the past (only includes payments later than 30 days past due)
30% capacity used: the ratio of current revolving debt (credit card balances, etc.) to total available revolving credit (credit limits)
15% length of credit history
10% types of credit used (installment revolving consumer finance
10% recent search for credit and/or amount of credit obtained recently
The above percentages provide very limited guidance in understanding a credit score. For example, the 10% of the score allocated to "types of credit used" is undefined, leaving consumers unaware what type of credit mix to pursue. "Length of credit history" is also a murky concept; it consists of multiple factors - two being the oldest account open and the average length of time an account has been open. Although only 35% is attributed to punctuality, if a consumer is substantially late on numerous accounts, his score will fall far more than 35%. Bankruptcies, foreclosures, and judgments affect scores substantially, but are not included in the simplistic pie chart provided by Fair Isaac.

Further, Fair Isaac does not use the same "scorecard" for everyone. The scorecards are segmented so that there are over 100 different actual scoring models that are applied to different individuals based on different ranges of input values (some scorecard segmentations include: age, depth of credit history, etc.) The implications of this segmentation are that while the approximate weighted contribution above may be an average across all scorecards, individuals will receive different scores or weightings based on the scorecard segmentation that they fall into. Some consumers have noticed their scores decreasing by small amounts for no apparent reason.

Current income and employment history do not influence the FICO score, but they are weighed when applying for credit. For instance, an unemployed individual with no other sources of income will not usually be approved for a home mortgage, regardless of his or her FICO score.

There are other special factors which can weigh on the FICO score.

Any monies owed because of a court judgment, tax lien, or similar carry an additional negative penalty, especially when recent.
Having above a certain number of consumer finance company credit accounts also carries a negative weight (critics say that this causes a vicious cycle, locking people into continuing to use consumer finance companies).
The number of recent credit checks also can weigh down the score, although the credit agencies claim to allow for credit checks made within a certain window of time to not aggregate, so as to allow the consumer to shop around for rates.

A FICO score generally ranges from 300 to 850. It exhibits a left-skewed distribution with a US median around 725. 660 is generally regarded as potentially subprime and represents an important break point for credit worthiness. The performance of the scores is monitored and the scores are periodically aligned so that a credit grantor normally does not need to be concerned about which score card was employed.

Each individual actually has three credit scores for any given scoring model because the three credit agencies hold their own, independent databases. These databases are independent of each other and may contain entirely different data. Many lenders will check an applicant's score from each bureau and use the median score to determine the applicant's credit worthiness.

A new Vantage score has been offered by all three credit bureaus to creditors since spring 2006. It will soon be available to debtors. Its range is from 501 to 990. It is graded A (901-990), B (801-900), C (701-800), D (601-700), and F (501-600). It remains to be seen whether the Vantage Score will replace the FICO score or even be accepted by many creditors.




Free Quote Apply Now Credit Card Debt Help

sharetipsinfo said...

Man your blog is very useful for users. Good stuff great work dear... Even we have
title="stock market">stock market
site , which we feel will be seful for everyone. Let your vistitors take maximum advantage by


title="stock investing">stock investing
as we provide best Indian stock market recommendation
so get it from us and leave rest....Make huge money
Regards


title="sharetipsinfo">sharetipsinfo

Anonymous said...

Hey nice blog. Although it�s not what I was looking for. I am looking for info on Payday Loans . I found your blog very interesting

Anonymous said...

MLM Recruiting Made Easy How a 26 Year Old
Waiter Built a $250,000 MLM Biz in 4 Months.
http://theparkers.magneticsponsoringonline.com/

Anonymous said...

Hey Guys if you have been dumped by adsense or given the run around by Yahoo then you need to look at this, Fair Ads Network are only taken 10,000 members then they are closing the doors, I suggest that you take a look Now before its too late : http://fairadsnetwork.com/034704959097

Anonymous said...

Hey, you have a great blog here! I'm definitely going to bookmark you!

I have a photo be a star site. It pretty much covers photo be a star related stuff.

Come and check it out if you get time :-)

Anonymous said...

Hi there, does anyone know of any affiliate marketing associate program commission? related sites. Ive setup a few sites with a site called Dating Solutions, for my new venture in the affiliate marketing associate program commission industry. But im eager to get going on other projects. I also found http://dating-solutions.blogspot.com/ to be useful reading, which is how i found Dating Solutions in the first place. - Excellent find, already made some money with them! Thanks for reading, Rachel x

Anonymous said...

Hey you have a grea blog here I'm definitely going to bookmark you!
blog probably their then they would I have a web development site with a blog about development, web design, hosting and moreblog probably their then they would Come check it out if you get time!

Anonymous said...

Learn how to install your Webserver Software & How to install PHP, MYSQL,PERL,PHPMYADMIN + MORE 100% FREE

YOU'LL DISCOVER...

How to host unlimited websites & domains for free.
How to install Webserver Software on your PC easily.
How to install PHP , MYSQL , PHPMYADMIN, PERL & ZEND... on your PC
Replicator site + MYSERVER Tutorials software to earn lots of money paid instantly to your PAYPAL account + how to promote it to millions 100% FREE.
And Much More...

Go here now : http://lnk.in/4cur

http://lnk.in/4cur

http://lnk.in/4cur

Thank you and hurry.

Anonymous said...

http://www.adquity.com

Classifieds for our community. Buy, sell, trade, date, events... post anything. Adquity Classifieds.

http://www.adquity.com

Anonymous said...

http://www.adquity.com

Classifieds for our community. Buy, sell, trade, date, events... post anything. Adquity Classifieds.

http://www.adquity.com

Anonymous said...

Regarding your blog - aol white pages. I have just signed up to talktalk broadband and is an absolutely superb deal. I get free telephone calls 24/7 plus free 8Mb/s broadband (which is lightening fast btw). I would definitely recommend talktalk broadband for anyone in the uk. Also available at www.bargainplace.co.uk

Anonymous said...

Great blog on cheap domain name registration hosting. I've stumbled on a superb money making website. Linkreferral is free to join and drives traffic to your website in an inivitive way (the more sites you visit, the more links you get back to your website.)

I've only been a member of Linkreferral for aproximately 2 weeks but I have already seen the volume of people coming to my site double - if not treble.

Linkreferral is not only driving visitors to my website but as a result my affiliate sales income has doubled also.

I really cannot push this website enough. It is free and it is fantastic!! www.linkreferral.com is a must for money making opportunities online.

Anonymous said...

WORRY NO MORE ABOUT bank repossession BECAUSE LINKREFERRAL IS HERE AND IT IS FREE!! CLEAR YOUR DEBTS AND BUILD UP SAVINGS AND IT DOESN'T COST A BEAN!!

Anonymous said...

Great blog....now...ADVICE TIME!! - If you need more web site traffic tracking and monitoring then congratulations I've come to the right place, try web site traffic tracking and monitoring - this is the best place online to get massive volumes of internet traffic back to your blog for blog publicity purposes. Within a week I had trippled my volume of traffic - Signup is free and before you know it you will flying up the Google search egine - guaranteed!! - Signup is free you have nothing to lose. Best of luck with it and continued success with your blog!!

Anonymous said...

Watiti.com adult dating
Join me and my circle of friends at http://www.watiti.com, an online social networking community that connects people from all over the world.

Meet new people, share photos, create or attend events, post free classifieds, send free e-cards, listen music, read blogs, upload videos, be part of a club, chat rooms, forum and much more!

See you around! Bring all your friends too!

Watiti.com adult dating

Anonymous said...

Nice blog!! I'm into increase site surf traffic web and to drive traffic to my website I signed up free for this superb traffic gereating tool - I now have loads of hits to my websites and blogs. This can see your affiliate commission shoot through the roof - meaning lots of extra money coming in for you and your family. Sign up now - it's free.. Best of luck, cheers for now, dave.

Anonymous said...

rate sex pic

Anonymous said...

Good blog - very interesting!! Thought you might like some excellent advice on driving extra traffic to your website/blog - I'm into secure web hosting and to drive traffic to my website I was searching around the internet for absolutely ages looking for SEO tools to fire my site up the Google search engine, then I signed up free for this superb traffic gereating tool - I now have loads of hits to my websites/blogs and my site is shooting up the Google rankings quicker than ever before.

Consequently this can see your affiliate commissions shoot through the roof - meaning lots of extra money coming in for you and your family. Sign up now - it's free.
. Sorry if this information is of no use to you but seeing as you have the anonymous feature enabled I thought I should share this free bit of essential promotional advice with you and would hope you would do the same for me.

I hope the tool will serve you equally as well as it has me!!

Best of luck, cheers for now, dave.

Anonymous said...

.
.
.
.
.
.
Good blog - very interesting!! I liked it so much I'm going to share this hush hush advice with you. Ever wondered how your neighbours are driving around in their brand new BMW or Mercedes cars - with their kids dressed in all the latest named gear and foreign holidays aplenty?? Well they discovered the secret to the extra online income.

If you are looking for a free tool to attract loads of free links to your blog or website then congratulations I've got the solution for you - and it is FREE!!

My website specialises in adhd and the nature of self control and to drive traffic to my website I was searching around the internet for absolutely ages looking for SEO tools and ffa submission sites to fire my site up the Google search engine - unfortunately these doing work and in fact had the opposite affect plunging my site down the rankings like it had a heavy weight attached!!, then I signed up for this free superb traffic generating tool - I now have loads of hits to my websites/blogs and my site is shooting back up the Google rankings quicker than ever before.

Consequently this saw my affiliate commissions shoot through the roof - meaning lots of extra money coming in for my family - I bought my first Mercedes car on the proceeds of my online campaign.
Sign up now - it's free.
. Sorry if this information is of no use to you but seeing as you have the anonymous feature enabled I thought I should share this free bit of essential promotional advice with you and would hope you would do the same for me and others who want to boost their online internet income.

I hope the tool will serve you equally as well as it has me - it's free!!

Best of luck, cheers for now, dave.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Anonymous said...

I have a real estate business site/blog. It pretty much covers ##KEYWORD## related stuff.

Come and check it out if you get time :-)
real estate businessreal estate business

Anonymous said...

09003d50f50cce21 event

Anonymous said...

http://www.watiti.com

Join me and my circle of friends at http://www.watiti.com,
an online social networking community that connects
people from all over the world.

Meet new people, share photos, create or attend
events, post free classifieds, send free e-cards,
listen music, read blogs, upload videos, be part of a
club, chat rooms, forum and much more!

See you around! Bring all your friends too!

http://www.watiti.com

Anonymous said...

Watiti.com adult dating
Join me and my circle of friends at http://www.watiti.com, an online social networking community that connects people from all over the world.

Meet new people, share photos, create or attend events, post free classifieds, send free e-cards, listen music, read blogs, upload videos, be part of a club, chat rooms, forum and much more!

See you around! Bring all your friends too!

Watiti.com adult dating

Anonymous said...

http://www.watiti.com

Join me and my circle of friends at http://www.watiti.com,
an online social networking community that connects
people from all over the world.

Meet new people, share photos, create or attend
events, post free classifieds, send free e-cards,
listen music, read blogs, upload videos, be part of a
club, chat rooms, forum and much more!

See you around! Bring all your friends too!

http://www.watiti.com

Anonymous said...

http://www.adquity.com

Classifieds for our community. Buy, sell, trade, date, events... post anything. Adquity Classifieds.

http://www.adquity.com

Kurt A. Tasche said...

Get over 10,000 hits per day to your website for free!! Check out
this alexa exchange traffic

Anonymous said...

Great site about
mortgage net branch opportunity. I am bookmarking it.
Please also visit my site aboutmortgage net branch opportunity

Anonymous said...

Hi

Sorry to intrude but I saw your blog, noticed you have anonymous posting enabled and thought you might be interested in this great search engine optimization tool for your blog and website (if you have one) that a techi mate recommended to me. Apparently it's all the rage in the IT arena.

I am involved in ecommerce consulting and I've found the best way of promoting my blogs and websites is The amazing link referral program. Don't worry it is absolutely free to join and you can generate visitors to your site by visiting others. It is really quick and easy to set up and the traffic you generate will help your website increase in google ranking. Give it a go now!!

I have generated amazing traffic from this program - increasing my affiliate sales and cannot recommend this enough. Believe me, if you have tried all the other programs on the market that you have had to pay for then you realise this one is the best - and it's free!!!

Best of luck with the blog!! I hope you get as much out of this program as I have ;-)

Anonymous said...

Thanks for the tips and insights. I run site and blog for home base business idea feel free to drop by and comment or swap links.

Anonymous said...

http://www.adquity.com

Classifieds for our community. Buy, sell, trade, date, events... post anything. Adquity Classifieds.

http://www.adquity.com

Anonymous said...

.





Hi matey

I'm sure it was this blog I was reading a while back where someone was looking for an SEO tool for driving more traffic and get more hits for their website.

Anyway, I was speaking to a techi guy at work who gets to know all the latest stuff and he uses the free Link Referral Program.

His website on web site promotion help amongst other stuff has seen traffic explode since he started using the Link Referral Program - consequently his affiliate sales commissions and business sales went through the roof PLUS his website increased in google ranking which was an added bonus!!

If anyone else has any good ideas for driving more traffic to blogs/websites then please share with your online business blog buddies. Ta ;-)










.

Anonymous said...

.









RE: business estate real



Thanks for recommending the free Link Referral Program for search engine optimization (seo) - I've signed up and am considering upgrading to the affiliate program - looks like a winner to me!!








.

Anonymous said...

http://www.adquity.com

Classifieds for our community. Buy, sell, trade, date, events... post anything. Adquity Classifieds.

http://www.adquity.com

Anonymous said...

;-)





Hi Blog mate!!

I hope you don't mind me blogging anonymously like this. I thought the blog was really cool. I am also into casino guide online.

I found another interesting website blog at http://gamblingwebsites.blogspot.com. I am constantly looking for ways of making extra money online and think that online gambling could be a way of doing that.

Cheers for now and keep up the good work!

Try linkreferral.com - free website traffic generating and promotion program

Anonymous said...

If you have a blog, or are thinking about starting a blog, then you are definitely going to want to read this article. It’s all about how to line your pockets with money that’s just waiting to be made without working much harder than you already are.

Google AdSense and Blogs

Anonymous said...

heating home massachusetts

Anonymous said...

Thanks for the tips and insights. I run site and blog for home money making business opportunity feel free to drop by and comment or swap links.

Anonymous said...

Anyone have any additional information on what is happening with PAS?

Want to see a great home business resource website? Check this one out MLM software

Anonymous said...

Hey, you have a great blog here! I'm definitely going to bookmark you!

I have a new home based business opportunity site/blog. It pretty much covers ##KEYWORD## related stuff.

Come and check it out if you get time :-)

Anonymous said...

Hey, you have a great blog here! I'm definitely going to bookmark you!

I have a home internet based business opportunity site. It pretty much covers home internet based business opportunity related stuff.

Come and check it out if you get time :-)

Anonymous said...

Thanks for the tips and insights. I run site and blog for internet home business feel free to drop by and comment or swap links.

Anonymous said...

Risk Free Program. No Selling Or Inventory. Call 1-800-719-8268 Ext.B0116

Anonymous said...

http://www.watiti.com
Join me and my circle of friends at Watiti.com,
an online social networking community that connects
people from all over the world.

Meet new people, share photos, create or attend
events, post free classifieds, send free e-cards,
listen music, read blogs, upload videos, be part of a
club, chat rooms, forum and much more!

See you around! Bring all your friends too!

http://www.watiti.com

Anonymous said...

This is probably the best business opportunity I have ever seen! It's called GAP. Anyone have any input on this one? I have also seen some good reviews and resources at legitimate home business

Anonymous said...

Blog about home for sale san angelo texas

Hi

Enjoyed the blog - nice to see someone else has activated their anonymous feature ;-)

I'm interested in investing in the real estate market in the US and am looking for some really cheap repossession properties in Miami, Florida, California, New York, Washington, Dallas, Texas, Chicago and Los Angeles. I've found a couple of really good sites - Bargain network which has some really cheap homes and Texas Ranches for sale - ranches in Texas plus both sites have beachfront villas and cars that have been repossessed and are really cheap!! Just wondering if there are any more sites like this.

Thanks for this.

John

Anonymous said...

Business Opportunities

Anonymous said...

.





Hi matey

I'm sure it was this blog I was reading a while back where someone was looking for an SEO tool for driving more traffic and get more hits for their website.

Anyway, I was speaking to a techi guy at work who gets to know all the latest stuff and he uses the free Link Referral Program at http://marketingexperts.wordpress.com.

His website on affiliate poker program amongst other stuff has seen traffic explode since he started using the Link Referral Program - consequently his affiliate sales commissions and business sales went through the roof PLUS his website increased in google ranking which was an added bonus!!

If anyone else has any good ideas for driving more traffic to blogs/websites then please share with your online business blog buddies. Ta ;-)


home based business
home based business opportunity
internet home based business
home based web business
best home based business
home based business idea
home internet based business opportunity
start home based business
best home based business opportunity
online home based business
income opportunity home based business
legitimate home based business
home based business lead
mlm home based business
starting a home based business
top home based business
christian home based business
home based small business
home based internet marketing business
free home based business
work at home based business opportunity
computer home based business
home based mlm business opportunity
make money home based business
home based business work
home based travel business
easy home based business
serious home based business opportunity
small home based business opportunity
online home based business opportunity
home based business for woman
business opportunity home based work from
work from home based business
new home based business opportunity
start a home based business on the internet
based business business home opportunity
legitimate home based business opportunity
home based sales business
home based jewelry business
best rated home based business
home based franchise opportunity business
successful home based business
home based business opportunity idea
profitable home based business
internet home based business idea
home based business work at home
best home based business idea
home based business opportunity work at home
free home based internet business
home based business tax deduction
top home based business opportunity
home based computer business opportunity
unique home based business opportunity
home based affiliate business
home based business opportunity uk
income opportunity home based business idea
based business home incredible opportunity
based best business home small
starting home based internet business
christian home based business opportunity
home based business merchant account
best home based internet business
based business home network opportunity
home based business marketing
based business home idea latest
home based business review
home based business directory
based business career home opportunity
work at home based internet business
based business home job opportunity
home based business trade secret
best home based business
home based business magazine
home based computer business idea
home based business startup idea
home based business for sale
home based business cash opportunity
home based business web site
most successful home based business









.

Omar Cruz said...

this report is fantastic, the infomation you show us is really interesting and is good written. Do you want to see something more? you can visit too:Great investment opportunity at Costa Rica Pacific Coast, Preconstruction condos in costa rica ,
Condo sales in costa rica, Retirement property in costa rica. Visit us for more info at: http://www.ramadajaco.com/

Celia said...

These articles are fantastic; the information you show us is interesting for everybody and is really good written. It’s just great!! Do you want to know something more? Read it...:Great investment opportunity in Costa Rica: hotel in jaco beach, jaco beach review, apartment beach jaco rental. Visit us for more info at: http://www.jaco-bay.com/

Anonymous said...

If your credit card uses different rates for purchases, transfers, and cash advances, realize that the card issuer may pay the lower interest rate balance first. Consequently, if you carry a balance, your high-rate cash advance may not be "paid" until all lower-rate balances are paid in full.
Fixed-Rate credit cards are not fixed forever. Rates can be changed at any time, as long as the card issuer provides 15 days advance notice of the change in terms. Fees may also increase. These "Change in Terms" notices are usually included with your monthly statement.
Your interest rate may dramatically increase if you make late payments. For example, some issuers will raise your interest rate to the maximum after one or two late payments. Consequently, your 12% credit card could quickly turn into a 25% credit card.
Your credit card issuer may also raise your interest rate after conducting a routine credit report review. If your overall credit history has deteriorated, the issuer may raise your interest rate, even though you've never made a late payment on the card in question.
The 25 day grace period only applies when you pay-off your entire balance due each month. If you only pay the minimum payment, interest is immediately accrued from the moment you charge something to your credit card. Some companies are also shortening the grace period to 20 days, and some cards have no grace periods.
Ignore offers to reduce or skip payments. These options are frequently offered over the holidays. When you skip a payment, the loan continues to accrue interest; therefore, these offers simply increase the overall interest and finance charges that the creditor collects. On a similar note, beware of offers of no payment/no interest for a period of time. Furniture stores, jewelry stores, and electronics stores frequently offer these programs. For example, no payment/no interest for 12 months!! This can be a good offer, but once again, read the fine print. Make sure you know the details of the program. Generally, you need to pay off the entire balance before the end of the "free" period to receive the benefit. Otherwise, you will probably have to pay interest on the entire balance from the date of your purchase
Debt1consolidation.com entails taking out one loan to pay off many others. This is often done to secure a lower interest rate, secure a fixed interest rate or for the convenience of servicing only one loan.

Debt1consolidation.com can simply be from a number of unsecured loans into another unsecured loan, but more often it involves a secured loan against an asset that serves as collateral, most commonly a house. In this case, a mortgage is secured against the house. The collateralization of the loan allows a lower interest rate than without it, because by collateralizing, the asset owner agrees to allow the forced sale (foreclosure) of the asset to pay back the loan. The risk to the lender is reduced so the interest rate offered is lower.

Sometimes, debt consolidation companies can discount the amount of the loan. When the debtor is in danger of bankruptcy, the debt consolidator will buy the loan at a discount. A prudent debtor can shop around for consolidators who will pass along some of the savings. Consolidation can affect the ability of the debtor to discharge debts in bankruptcy, so the decision to consolidate must be weighed carefully.

Debt consolidation is often advisable in theory when someone is paying credit card debt. Credit cards can carry a much larger interest rate than even an unsecured loan from a bank. Debtors with property such as a home or car may get a lower rate through a secured loan using their property as collateral. Then the total interest and the total cash flow paid towards the debt is lower allowing the debt to be paid off sooner, incurring less interest. In practice, many people are in credit card debt because they spend more than their income. If that habit continues, the consolidation will not benefit them much because they will simply increase their credit card balances again.

Because of the theoretical advantage that debt consolidation offers a consumer that has high interest debt balances, companies can take advantage of that benefit of refinancing to charge very high fees in the debt consolidation loan. Sometimes these fees are near the state maximum for mortgage fees. In addition, some unscrupulous companies will knowingly wait until a client has backed themselves into a corner and must refinance in order to consolidate and pay off bills that they are behind on the payments. If the client does not refinance they may lose their house, so they are willing to pay any allowable fee to complete the debt consolidation. In some cases the situation is that the client does not have enough time to shop for another lender with lower fees and may not even be fully aware of them. This practice is known as predatory lending Certainly many, if not most, debt consolidation transactions do not involve predatory lending.

Credit card debt is an example of unsecured consumer debt, accessed through plastic credit cards.

Debt results when a client of a credit card company purchases an item or service through the card system. Debt accumulates and increases via interest and penalties when the consumer does not pay the company for the money he or she has spent.

The results of not paying this debt on time are that the company will charge a late payment penalty (generally in the US from $10 to $40) and report the late payment to credit rating agencies. Being late on a payment is sometimes referred to as being in "default". The late payment penalty itself increases the amount of debt the consumer has.

When a consumer has been late on a payment, it is possible that other creditors, even creditors the consumer was not late in paying, may increase the interest rates the consumer is paying. This practice is called universal default.

If the customer is carrying an amount of debt that is so high that it is over their credit limit, then they might be charged an over-the-limit fee of up to $39 until their balance is paid down to below their credit limit. This, too, may add to the consumer's debt.

Sometimes the late fees, over-the-limit fees, high annual percentage rates (APRs), and universal default overcome consumers who frequently do not pay off their debt, and the customer declares bankruptcy. If a customer files for bankruptcy, the credit card companies are required to forgive all or much of the debt, unless such discharge of debt is successfully challenged by one or more creditors, or blocked by a bankruptcy judge on legal grounds irrespective of creditors' challenges.

Because forgiveness of debt reduces likelihood of profit and continued survival, the companies are generally willing to offer another deal to the consumers in danger of bankruptcy. This deal consists of reduced APRs, removal of past late fees and penalty charges, and reaging the accounts so that the credit agencies see them as late accounts.A credit card is a system of payment named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. A credit card is different from a debit card in that it does not remove money from the user's account after every transaction. In the case of credit cards, the issuer lends money to the consumer (or the user). It is also different from a charge card (though this name is sometimes used by the public to describe credit cards), which requires the balance to be paid in full each month. In contrast, a credit card allows the consumer to 'revolve' their balance, at the cost of having interest charged. Most credit cards are the same shape and size, as specified by the standard.

A user is issued credit after an account has been approved by the credit provider, and is given a credit card, with which the user will be able to make purchases from merchants accepting that credit card up to a pre-established credit limit. Often a general bank issues the credit, but sometimes a captive bank created to issue a particular brand of credit card, such as or Banks issues the credit.

When a purchase is made, the credit card user agrees to pay the card issuer. The cardholder indicates their consent to pay, by signing a receipt with a record of the card details and indicating the amount to be paid or by entering a Personal identification number (PIN). Also, many merchants now accept verbal authorizations via telephone and electronic authorization using the Internet, known as a Card not present (CNP) transaction.

Electronic verification systems allow merchants to verify that the card is valid and the credit card customer has sufficient credit to cover the purchase in a few seconds, allowing the verification to happen at time of purchase. The verification is performed using a credit card payment terminal or Point of Sale (POS) system with a communications link to the merchant's acquiring bank. Data from the card is obtained from a magnetic stripe or chip on the card; the latter system is in the United Kingdom commonly known as Chip an PIN, but is more technically an EMV card.

Other variations of verification systems are used by eCommerce merchants to determine if the user's account is valid and able to accept the charge. These will typically involve the cardholder providing additional information, such as the security code printed on the back of the card, or the address of the cardholder.

Each month, the credit card user is sent a statement indicating the purchases undertaken with the card, any outstanding fees, and the total amount owed. After receiving the statement, the cardholder may dispute any charges that he or she thinks are incorrect (see Fair Credit Billing Act for details of the US regulations). Otherwise, the cardholder must pay a defined minimum proportion of the bill by a due date, or may choose to pay a higher amount up to the entire amount owed. The credit provider charges interest on the amount owed (typically at a much higher rate than most other forms of debt). Some financial institutions can arrange for automatic payments to be deducted from the user's bank accounts.

Credit card issuers usually waive interest charges if the balance is paid in full each month, but typically will charge full interest on the entire outstanding balance from the date of each purchase if the total balance is not paid.

For example, if a user had a $1,000 outstanding balance and pays it in full, there would be no interest charged. If, however, even $1.00 of the total balance remained unpaid, interest would be charged on the $1 from the date of purchase until the payment is received. The precise manner in which interest is charged is usually detailed in a cardholder agreement which may be summarized on the back of the monthly statement. The general calculation formula most financial institutions use to determine the amount of interest to be charged is APR/100 x ADB/365 x number of days revolved. Take the Annual percentage rate (APR) and divide by 100 then multiply to the amount of the average daily balance divided by 365 and then take this total and multiply by the total number of days the amount revolved before payment was made on the account. Financial institutions refer to interest charged back to the original time of the transaction and up to the time a payment was made, if not in full, as RRFC or residual retail finance charge. Thus after an amount has revolved and a payment has been made that the user of the card will still receive interest charges on their statement after paying the next statement in full (in fact the statement may only have a charge for interest that collected up until the date the full balance was paid...i.e. when the balance stopped revolving).

The credit card may simply serve as a form of revolving credit, or it may become a complicated financial instrument with multiple balance segments each at a different interest rate, possibly with a single umbrella credit limit, or with separate credit limits applicable to the various balance segments. Usually this compartmentalization is the result of special incentive offers from the issuing bank, either to encourage balance transfers from cards of other issuers, or to encourage more spending on the part of the customer. In the event that several interest rates apply to various balance segments, payment allocation is generally at the discretion of the issuing bank, and payments will therefore usually be allocated towards the lowest rate balances until paid in full before any money is paid towards higher rate balances. Interest rates can vary considerably from card to card, and the interest rate on a particular card may jump dramatically if the card user is late with a payment on that card or any other credit instrument, or even if the issuing bank decides to raise its revenue. As the rates and terms vary, services have been set up allowing users to calculate savings available by switching cards, which can be considerable if there is a large outstanding balance (see external links for some on-line services).

Because of intense competition in the credit card industry, credit providers often offer incentives such as frequent flier points, gift certificates, or cash back (typically up to 1 percent based on total purchases) to try to attract customers to their program.

Low interest credit cards or even 0% interest credit cards are available. The only downside to consumers is that the period of low interest credit cards is limited to a fixed term, usually between 6 and 12 months after which a higher rate is charged. However, services are available which alert credit card holders when their low interest period is due to expire. Most such services charge a monthly or annual fee. credit card's grace period is the time the customer has to pay the balance before interest is charged to the balance. Grace periods vary, but usually range from 20 to 30 days depending on the type of credit card and the issuing bank. Some policies allow for reinstatement after certain conditions are met. Usually, if a customer is late paying the balance, finance charges will be calculated and the grace period does not apply. Finance charge(s) incurred depends on the grace period and balance, with most credit cards there is no grace period if there's any outstanding balance from the previous billing cycle or statement (ie. interest is applied on both the previous balance and new transactions). However, there are some credit cards that will only apply finance charge on the previous or old balance, excluding new transactions.

For merchants, a credit card transaction is often more secure than other forms of payment, such as checks, because the issuing bank commits to pay the merchant the moment the transaction is authorized, regardless of whether the consumer defaults on their credit card payment (except for legitimate disputes, which are discussed below, and can result in charge backs to the merchant). In most cases, cards are even more secure than cash, because they discourage theft by the merchant's employees.

For each purchase, the bank charges a commission (discount fee), to the merchant for this service and there may be a certain delay before the agreed payment is received by the merchant. The commission is often a percentage of the transaction amount, plus a fixed fee. In addition, a merchant may be penalized or have their ability to receive payment using that credit card restricted if there are too many cancellations or reversals of charges as a result of disputes. Some small merchants require credit purchases to have a minimum amount (usually between $5 and $10) to compensate for the transaction costs, though this is not always allowed by the credit card consortium.

In some countries, like the Nordic countries, banks guarantee payment on stolen cards only if an ID card is checked and the ID card number/civic registration number is written down on the receipt together with the signature. In these countries merchants therefore usually ask for ID. Non-Nordic citizens, who are unlikely to possess a Nordic ID card or driving license, will instead have to show their passport, and the passport number will be written down on the receipt, sometimes together with other information. Some shops use the card's PIN code for identification, and in that case showing an ID card is not necessary.

Authorization: When the cardholders pays for the purchase, the merchant performs some risk assessment and may submit the transaction to the acquirer for authorization. The acquirer verifies with the issuer—almost instantly—that the card number and transaction amount are both valid, and informs the merchant on how to proceed. The issuer may provisionally debit the funds from the cardholder's credit account at this stage.
Batching: After the transaction is authorized it is then stored in a batch, which the merchant sends to the acquiring bank later to receive payment (usually at the end of the day).
Clearing and settlement: The acquiring bank sends the transactions in the batch through the card association, which debits the card-issuing bank for the transaction amount, and credits the acquirer for the transaction amount minus the interchange fee.
Funding: The acquiring bank pays the merchant. The amount the merchant receives is equal to the transaction amount minus the discount rate charged by the acquiring bank to the merchant for the service.
The entire process, from authorization to funding, usually takes about 2-7 business days. However, many merchant card processors offer next-day deposits to customers subject to type of banking account.

In the event of a chargeback (when there's an error in processing the transaction or the cardholder disputes the transaction), the issuer returns the transaction to the acquirer for resolution. The acquirer then forwards the chargeback to the merchant, who must either accept the chargeback or contest it.

Commodity money is any money that is both used as a general purpose medium of exchange and as a tradable commodity in its own right.

Commodity based currencies are often viewed as more stable, but this is not always the case. The value of a commodity based currency as a medium of exchange depends on its supply relative to other goods and services available in the economy. Historically, gold, silver and other metals commonly used in commodity based monetary systems have been subject to regular and sometimes extraordinary fluctuations in purchasing power. This not only damages its stability as a medium of exchange; it also reduces its effectiveness as a store of value. In the 1500s and 1600s huge quantities of gold and even larger amounts of silver were discovered in the New World and brought back to Europe for conversion into coin. As a result, the purchasing power of those coins fell by 60% to 80%, i.e. the prices of goods rose, because the supply of goods did not keep pace with the increased supply of money. In addition, the relative value of silver to gold shifted dramatically downward. Such discoveries of huge sources of gold or silver are a thing of the past, and lend to their supply stability. More recently, from 1980 to 2001, gold was a particularly poor store of value, as gold prices dropped from a high of $850/oz. ($27.30 /g) to a low of $255/oz. ($8.20 /g).It should be noted that gold was not a currency at this time, and was fluctuating due to its status as a final store of value — that is, the price never goes to zero as fiat currencies inevitably do. The advantage of gold and silver, however, lies in the fact that, unlike fiat paper currency, the supply cannot be increased arbitrarily by a central bank.

It is also possible for the trading value of a commodity money to be greater than its value as a medium of exchange when governments attempt to fix exchange rates between different commodity monies. When this happens people will often start melting down coins and reselling the metal used to make them. This has happened periodically in the United States, eventually causing it to move away from pure silver nickels and pure copper pennies. Shipping coins from one jurisdiction to another so that they could be reminted was sometimes a lucrative trade before the advent of trusted paper money.

Commodity money's ability to function as a store of value is also limited by its very nature. Copper and tin risk rust and corrosion. Gold and silver are soft metals that can lose weight through scratches and abrasions, but this is nothing by comparison to fiat currencies, where billions of dollars can be injected ("printed") into the market within moments.

Stability aside, commodity-based currencies may have a tendency to restrain growth in a very active economy. For example, in order to maintain the price level, the supply of money in an any economy must be equal or greater than the volume of goods and services produced. If commodities are used as money, then the total production can easily outstrip the supply of those commodities, which leads to price deflation. The lower prices of goods would signal to their producers to reduce the supply of goods, hence restoring the price level. As such, production within commodity-based economies tends to be limited by the supply of the commodity currency.[citation needed]

This problem is compounded by the fact that money also serves as a store of value. This encourages hoarding (in other circumstances known as "saving")and takes the commodity money out circulation, reducing the supply. The supply of circulating commodity currency is further reduced by the fact that commodity moneys also have competing non-monetary uses. For example, gold and silver are used in jewelry, and nickel and copper have important industrial uses.

Commodity based currencies also limit the geographic extent of the trading market. To make large purchases either a large volume or a high weight or both of the commodity must be transported to the seller. The cost of transportation of the currency raises the transaction cost and makes long distance sales less attractive


If your credit card uses different rates for purchases, transfers, and cash advances, realize that the card issuer may pay the lower interest rate balance first. Consequently, if you carry a balance, your high-rate cash advance may not be "paid" until all lower-rate balances are paid in full.
Fixed-Rate credit cards are not fixed forever. Rates can be changed at any time, as long as the card issuer provides 15 days advance notice of the change in terms. Fees may also increase. These "Change in Terms" notices are usually included with your monthly statement.
Your interest rate may dramatically increase if you make late payments. For example, some issuers will raise your interest rate to the maximum after one or two late payments. Consequently, your 12% credit card could quickly turn into a 25% credit card.
Your credit card issuer may also raise your interest rate after conducting a routine credit report review. If your overall credit history has deteriorated, the issuer may raise your interest rate, even though you've never made a late payment on the card in question.
The 25 day grace period only applies when you pay-off your entire balance due each month. If you only pay the minimum payment, interest is immediately accrued from the moment you charge something to your credit card. Some companies are also shortening the grace period to 20 days, and some cards have no grace periods.
Ignore offers to reduce or skip payments. These options are frequently offered over the holidays. When you skip a payment, the loan continues to accrue interest; therefore, these offers simply increase the overall interest and finance charges that the creditor collects. On a similar note, beware of offers of no payment/no interest for a period of time. Furniture stores, jewelry stores, and electronics stores frequently offer these programs. For example, no payment/no interest for 12 months!! This can be a good offer, but once again, read the fine print. Make sure you know the details of the program. Generally, you need to pay off the entire balance before the end of the "free" period to receive the benefit. Otherwise, you will probably have to pay interest on the entire balance from the date of your purchase
Debt1consolidation.com entails taking out one loan to pay off many others. This is often done to secure a lower interest rate, secure a fixed interest rate or for the convenience of servicing only one loan.

Debt1consolidation.com can simply be from a number of unsecured loans into another unsecured loan, but more often it involves a secured loan against an asset that serves as collateral, most commonly a house. In this case, a mortgage is secured against the house. The collateralization of the loan allows a lower interest rate than without it, because by collateralizing, the asset owner agrees to allow the forced sale (foreclosure) of the asset to pay back the loan. The risk to the lender is reduced so the interest rate offered is lower.

Sometimes, debt consolidation companies can discount the amount of the loan. When the debtor is in danger of bankruptcy, the debt consolidator will buy the loan at a discount. A prudent debtor can shop around for consolidators who will pass along some of the savings. Consolidation can affect the ability of the debtor to discharge debts in bankruptcy, so the decision to consolidate must be weighed carefully.

Debt consolidation is often advisable in theory when someone is paying credit card debt. Credit cards can carry a much larger interest rate than even an unsecured loan from a bank. Debtors with property such as a home or car may get a lower rate through a secured loan using their property as collateral. Then the total interest and the total cash flow paid towards the debt is lower allowing the debt to be paid off sooner, incurring less interest. In practice, many people are in credit card debt because they spend more than their income. If that habit continues, the consolidation will not benefit them much because they will simply increase their credit card balances again.

Because of the theoretical advantage that debt consolidation offers a consumer that has high interest debt balances, companies can take advantage of that benefit of refinancing to charge very high fees in the debt consolidation loan. Sometimes these fees are near the state maximum for mortgage fees. In addition, some unscrupulous companies will knowingly wait until a client has backed themselves into a corner and must refinance in order to consolidate and pay off bills that they are behind on the payments. If the client does not refinance they may lose their house, so they are willing to pay any allowable fee to complete the debt consolidation. In some cases the situation is that the client does not have enough time to shop for another lender with lower fees and may not even be fully aware of them. This practice is known as predatory lending Certainly many, if not most, debt consolidation transactions do not involve predatory lending.

Credit card debt is an example of unsecured consumer debt, accessed through plastic credit cards.

Debt results when a client of a credit card company purchases an item or service through the card system. Debt accumulates and increases via interest and penalties when the consumer does not pay the company for the money he or she has spent.

The results of not paying this debt on time are that the company will charge a late payment penalty (generally in the US from $10 to $40) and report the late payment to credit rating agencies. Being late on a payment is sometimes referred to as being in "default". The late payment penalty itself increases the amount of debt the consumer has.

When a consumer has been late on a payment, it is possible that other creditors, even creditors the consumer was not late in paying, may increase the interest rates the consumer is paying. This practice is called universal default.

If the customer is carrying an amount of debt that is so high that it is over their credit limit, then they might be charged an over-the-limit fee of up to $39 until their balance is paid down to below their credit limit. This, too, may add to the consumer's debt.

Sometimes the late fees, over-the-limit fees, high annual percentage rates (APRs), and universal default overcome consumers who frequently do not pay off their debt, and the customer declares bankruptcy. If a customer files for bankruptcy, the credit card companies are required to forgive all or much of the debt, unless such discharge of debt is successfully challenged by one or more creditors, or blocked by a bankruptcy judge on legal grounds irrespective of creditors' challenges.

Because forgiveness of debt reduces likelihood of profit and continued survival, the companies are generally willing to offer another deal to the consumers in danger of bankruptcy. This deal consists of reduced APRs, removal of past late fees and penalty charges, and reaging the accounts so that the credit agencies see them as late accounts.A credit card is a system of payment named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. A credit card is different from a debit card in that it does not remove money from the user's account after every transaction. In the case of credit cards, the issuer lends money to the consumer (or the user). It is also different from a charge card (though this name is sometimes used by the public to describe credit cards), which requires the balance to be paid in full each month. In contrast, a credit card allows the consumer to 'revolve' their balance, at the cost of having interest charged. Most credit cards are the same shape and size, as specified by the standard.

A user is issued credit after an account has been approved by the credit provider, and is given a credit card, with which the user will be able to make purchases from merchants accepting that credit card up to a pre-established credit limit. Often a general bank issues the credit, but sometimes a captive bank created to issue a particular brand of credit card, such as or Banks issues the credit.

When a purchase is made, the credit card user agrees to pay the card issuer. The cardholder indicates their consent to pay, by signing a receipt with a record of the card details and indicating the amount to be paid or by entering a Personal identification number (PIN). Also, many merchants now accept verbal authorizations via telephone and electronic authorization using the Internet, known as a Card not present (CNP) transaction.

Electronic verification systems allow merchants to verify that the card is valid and the credit card customer has sufficient credit to cover the purchase in a few seconds, allowing the verification to happen at time of purchase. The verification is performed using a credit card payment terminal or Point of Sale (POS) system with a communications link to the merchant's acquiring bank. Data from the card is obtained from a magnetic stripe or chip on the card; the latter system is in the United Kingdom commonly known as Chip an PIN, but is more technically an EMV card.

Other variations of verification systems are used by eCommerce merchants to determine if the user's account is valid and able to accept the charge. These will typically involve the cardholder providing additional information, such as the security code printed on the back of the card, or the address of the cardholder.

Each month, the credit card user is sent a statement indicating the purchases undertaken with the card, any outstanding fees, and the total amount owed. After receiving the statement, the cardholder may dispute any charges that he or she thinks are incorrect (see Fair Credit Billing Act for details of the US regulations). Otherwise, the cardholder must pay a defined minimum proportion of the bill by a due date, or may choose to pay a higher amount up to the entire amount owed. The credit provider charges interest on the amount owed (typically at a much higher rate than most other forms of debt). Some financial institutions can arrange for automatic payments to be deducted from the user's bank accounts.

Credit card issuers usually waive interest charges if the balance is paid in full each month, but typically will charge full interest on the entire outstanding balance from the date of each purchase if the total balance is not paid.

For example, if a user had a $1,000 outstanding balance and pays it in full, there would be no interest charged. If, however, even $1.00 of the total balance remained unpaid, interest would be charged on the $1 from the date of purchase until the payment is received. The precise manner in which interest is charged is usually detailed in a cardholder agreement which may be summarized on the back of the monthly statement. The general calculation formula most financial institutions use to determine the amount of interest to be charged is APR/100 x ADB/365 x number of days revolved. Take the Annual percentage rate (APR) and divide by 100 then multiply to the amount of the average daily balance divided by 365 and then take this total and multiply by the total number of days the amount revolved before payment was made on the account. Financial institutions refer to interest charged back to the original time of the transaction and up to the time a payment was made, if not in full, as RRFC or residual retail finance charge. Thus after an amount has revolved and a payment has been made that the user of the card will still receive interest charges on their statement after paying the next statement in full (in fact the statement may only have a charge for interest that collected up until the date the full balance was paid...i.e. when the balance stopped revolving).

The credit card may simply serve as a form of revolving credit, or it may become a complicated financial instrument with multiple balance segments each at a different interest rate, possibly with a single umbrella credit limit, or with separate credit limits applicable to the various balance segments. Usually this compartmentalization is the result of special incentive offers from the issuing bank, either to encourage balance transfers from cards of other issuers, or to encourage more spending on the part of the customer. In the event that several interest rates apply to various balance segments, payment allocation is generally at the discretion of the issuing bank, and payments will therefore usually be allocated towards the lowest rate balances until paid in full before any money is paid towards higher rate balances. Interest rates can vary considerably from card to card, and the interest rate on a particular card may jump dramatically if the card user is late with a payment on that card or any other credit instrument, or even if the issuing bank decides to raise its revenue. As the rates and terms vary, services have been set up allowing users to calculate savings available by switching cards, which can be considerable if there is a large outstanding balance (see external links for some on-line services).

Because of intense competition in the credit card industry, credit providers often offer incentives such as frequent flier points, gift certificates, or cash back (typically up to 1 percent based on total purchases) to try to attract customers to their program.

Low interest credit cards or even 0% interest credit cards are available. The only downside to consumers is that the period of low interest credit cards is limited to a fixed term, usually between 6 and 12 months after which a higher rate is charged. However, services are available which alert credit card holders when their low interest period is due to expire. Most such services charge a monthly or annual fee. credit card's grace period is the time the customer has to pay the balance before interest is charged to the balance. Grace periods vary, but usually range from 20 to 30 days depending on the type of credit card and the issuing bank. Some policies allow for reinstatement after certain conditions are met. Usually, if a customer is late paying the balance, finance charges will be calculated and the grace period does not apply. Finance charge(s) incurred depends on the grace period and balance, with most credit cards there is no grace period if there's any outstanding balance from the previous billing cycle or statement (ie. interest is applied on both the previous balance and new transactions). However, there are some credit cards that will only apply finance charge on the previous or old balance, excluding new transactions.

For merchants, a credit card transaction is often more secure than other forms of payment, such as checks, because the issuing bank commits to pay the merchant the moment the transaction is authorized, regardless of whether the consumer defaults on their credit card payment (except for legitimate disputes, which are discussed below, and can result in charge backs to the merchant). In most cases, cards are even more secure than cash, because they discourage theft by the merchant's employees.

For each purchase, the bank charges a commission (discount fee), to the merchant for this service and there may be a certain delay before the agreed payment is received by the merchant. The commission is often a percentage of the transaction amount, plus a fixed fee. In addition, a merchant may be penalized or have their ability to receive payment using that credit card restricted if there are too many cancellations or reversals of charges as a result of disputes. Some small merchants require credit purchases to have a minimum amount (usually between $5 and $10) to compensate for the transaction costs, though this is not always allowed by the credit card consortium.

In some countries, like the Nordic countries, banks guarantee payment on stolen cards only if an ID card is checked and the ID card number/civic registration number is written down on the receipt together with the signature. In these countries merchants therefore usually ask for ID. Non-Nordic citizens, who are unlikely to possess a Nordic ID card or driving license, will instead have to show their passport, and the passport number will be written down on the receipt, sometimes together with other information. Some shops use the card's PIN code for identification, and in that case showing an ID card is not necessary.

Authorization: When the cardholders pays for the purchase, the merchant performs some risk assessment and may submit the transaction to the acquirer for authorization. The acquirer verifies with the issuer—almost instantly—that the card number and transaction amount are both valid, and informs the merchant on how to proceed. The issuer may provisionally debit the funds from the cardholder's credit account at this stage.
Batching: After the transaction is authorized it is then stored in a batch, which the merchant sends to the acquiring bank later to receive payment (usually at the end of the day).
Clearing and settlement: The acquiring bank sends the transactions in the batch through the card association, which debits the card-issuing bank for the transaction amount, and credits the acquirer for the transaction amount minus the interchange fee.
Funding: The acquiring bank pays the merchant. The amount the merchant receives is equal to the transaction amount minus the discount rate charged by the acquiring bank to the merchant for the service.
The entire process, from authorization to funding, usually takes about 2-7 business days. However, many merchant card processors offer next-day deposits to customers subject to type of banking account.

In the event of a chargeback (when there's an error in processing the transaction or the cardholder disputes the transaction), the issuer returns the transaction to the acquirer for resolution. The acquirer then forwards the chargeback to the merchant, who must either accept the chargeback or contest it.

Commodity money is any money that is both used as a general purpose medium of exchange and as a tradable commodity in its own right.

Commodity based currencies are often viewed as more stable, but this is not always the case. The value of a commodity based currency as a medium of exchange depends on its supply relative to other goods and services available in the economy. Historically, gold, silver and other metals commonly used in commodity based monetary systems have been subject to regular and sometimes extraordinary fluctuations in purchasing power. This not only damages its stability as a medium of exchange; it also reduces its effectiveness as a store of value. In the 1500s and 1600s huge quantities of gold and even larger amounts of silver were discovered in the New World and brought back to Europe for conversion into coin. As a result, the purchasing power of those coins fell by 60% to 80%, i.e. the prices of goods rose, because the supply of goods did not keep pace with the increased supply of money. In addition, the relative value of silver to gold shifted dramatically downward. Such discoveries of huge sources of gold or silver are a thing of the past, and lend to their supply stability. More recently, from 1980 to 2001, gold was a particularly poor store of value, as gold prices dropped from a high of $850/oz. ($27.30 /g) to a low of $255/oz. ($8.20 /g).It should be noted that gold was not a currency at this time, and was fluctuating due to its status as a final store of value — that is, the price never goes to zero as fiat currencies inevitably do. The advantage of gold and silver, however, lies in the fact that, unlike fiat paper currency, the supply cannot be increased arbitrarily by a central bank.

It is also possible for the trading value of a commodity money to be greater than its value as a medium of exchange when governments attempt to fix exchange rates between different commodity monies. When this happens people will often start melting down coins and reselling the metal used to make them. This has happened periodically in the United States, eventually causing it to move away from pure silver nickels and pure copper pennies. Shipping coins from one jurisdiction to another so that they could be reminted was sometimes a lucrative trade before the advent of trusted paper money.

Commodity money's ability to function as a store of value is also limited by its very nature. Copper and tin risk rust and corrosion. Gold and silver are soft metals that can lose weight through scratches and abrasions, but this is nothing by comparison to fiat currencies, where billions of dollars can be injected ("printed") into the market within moments.

Stability aside, commodity-based currencies may have a tendency to restrain growth in a very active economy. For example, in order to maintain the price level, the supply of money in an any economy must be equal or greater than the volume of goods and services produced. If commodities are used as money, then the total production can easily outstrip the supply of those commodities, which leads to price deflation. The lower prices of goods would signal to their producers to reduce the supply of goods, hence restoring the price level. As such, production within commodity-based economies tends to be limited by the supply of the commodity currency.[citation needed]

This problem is compounded by the fact that money also serves as a store of value. This encourages hoarding (in other circumstances known as "saving")and takes the commodity money out circulation, reducing the supply. The supply of circulating commodity currency is further reduced by the fact that commodity moneys also have competing non-monetary uses. For example, gold and silver are used in jewelry, and nickel and copper have important industrial uses.

Commodity based currencies also limit the geographic extent of the trading market. To make large purchases either a large volume or a high weight or both of the commodity must be transported to the seller. The cost of transportation of the currency raises the transaction cost and makes long distance sales less attractive

Anonymous said...

it has become very easy to borrow loans these days. Advancements in technology particularly with the Internet have made it convenient for loan seekers to track the loan of their choice. With just a few clicks on a lender's website you can access the desired loan online. The ease with which loans are available online nowadays is the main reason behind the growing number of debt-related problems.

The vast number of loans taken on different occasions may have benefited you many times and may have even been a lifesaver in an urgent situation. However, you may not have known that these loans can pose a threat to you. Now you have to remember which lender to pay, how much and when. Failing to pay any of the installments on the loan may affect your credit score adversely. In such circumstances, debts become a burden. You may get into a life-long debt trap if you don't know how to handle these debts. A debt management program in such conditions can work as an effective debt management tool helping you in reducing the debt burden.

Here are a few debt management tips that can help you in managing your debts and getting your life back on the right track:

Create A Budget
An organized and well-planned budget can help you in keeping control over your monthly expenses. Write down each and every financial transaction you do each month; this will help you stay on track. It will give you a real idea of your finances and thus you can make the decision accordingly. A budget will give you an overview about how many funds you do have and how you are going to disburse the expenses with the available money. Setting up the budget is not enough: what is important is to stick to it.

Consolidate High Interest Loans
Consolidate your debts that carry a high rate of interest with a debt consolidation loan. A debt consolidation loan can work as an effective debt management tool. It will help you in getting rid of the debt burden by reducing the monthly outgoings. With a debt consolidation loan, you will get freedom from all the hassles involved in dealing with several creditors, you will be accountable to only one loan, one lender and one lower monthly installment.

Avoid taking on new credit
If you are already in a debt trap, avoid taking up a new loan. Borrowing a new loan may be of great help to you, but it will be in the short term. It may increase the debt burden and will add to your troubles rather then solving them.

Debt Management Counseling
You can also seek for advice from debt management counselors. The majority of the lenders in the US engage debt management counselors who have years of experience and can provide you with an easy road map to get rid of the debt trap by paying off the existing debts.

Learn To Save
A need for a loan arises when you do not have sufficient funds in your saving account to meet your personal desires. Make saving a habit, try not to overspend on unnecessary things. No, don't become a miser but use the funds carefully, a little sum of money saved today will be highly beneficial for you in the future and will make it easy for you to deal emergency cash need with the available funds on the right time and in the right manner.

Debt management is a time-consuming process. You can save your time and hard-earned money by employing a debt management company who will take care of your debt and can offer effective solutions to all your debt-related problems.

Tips for managing debts employed in the right manner can curb the menace created by debts, helping you get out of debt in an easier way. Paying off the existing debts will help you in securing a smoother and easier life for the future









it has become very easy to borrow loans these days. Advancements in technology particularly with the Internet have made it convenient for loan seekers to track the loan of their choice. With just a few clicks on a lender's website you can access the desired loan online. The ease with which loans are available online nowadays is the main reason behind the growing number of debt-related problems.

The vast number of loans taken on different occasions may have benefited you many times and may have even been a lifesaver in an urgent situation. However, you may not have known that these loans can pose a threat to you. Now you have to remember which lender to pay, how much and when. Failing to pay any of the installments on the loan may affect your credit score adversely. In such circumstances, debts become a burden. You may get into a life-long debt trap if you don't know how to handle these debts. A debt management program in such conditions can work as an effective debt management tool helping you in reducing the debt burden.

Here are a few debt management tips that can help you in managing your debts and getting your life back on the right track:

Create A Budget
An organized and well-planned budget can help you in keeping control over your monthly expenses. Write down each and every financial transaction you do each month; this will help you stay on track. It will give you a real idea of your finances and thus you can make the decision accordingly. A budget will give you an overview about how many funds you do have and how you are going to disburse the expenses with the available money. Setting up the budget is not enough: what is important is to stick to it.

Consolidate High Interest Loans
Consolidate your debts that carry a high rate of interest with a debt consolidation loan. A debt consolidation loan can work as an effective debt management tool. It will help you in getting rid of the debt burden by reducing the monthly outgoings. With a debt consolidation loan, you will get freedom from all the hassles involved in dealing with several creditors, you will be accountable to only one loan, one lender and one lower monthly installment.

Avoid taking on new credit
If you are already in a debt trap, avoid taking up a new loan. Borrowing a new loan may be of great help to you, but it will be in the short term. It may increase the debt burden and will add to your troubles rather then solving them.

Debt Management Counseling
You can also seek for advice from debt management counselors. The majority of the lenders in the US engage debt management counselors who have years of experience and can provide you with an easy road map to get rid of the debt trap by paying off the existing debts.

Learn To Save
A need for a loan arises when you do not have sufficient funds in your saving account to meet your personal desires. Make saving a habit, try not to overspend on unnecessary things. No, don't become a miser but use the funds carefully, a little sum of money saved today will be highly beneficial for you in the future and will make it easy for you to deal emergency cash need with the available funds on the right time and in the right manner.

Debt management is a time-consuming process. You can save your time and hard-earned money by employing a debt management company who will take care of your debt and can offer effective solutions to all your debt-related problems.

Tips for managing debts employed in the right manner can curb the menace created by debts, helping you get out of debt in an easier way. Paying off the existing debts will help you in securing a smoother and easier life for the future

Diana said...

Wow, very informative info u posted! congrats!
sportsbook
http://www.enterbet.com

Anonymous said...

Very Informational Discussion. Thanks For The Great Blog Your Next Step To Success

stev4n said...

An seo consultant from Proweb Direct can provide you with search engine optimisation campaign strategy, to help you and your website rank highly on the search engines, why not add your website to the Proweb directory, if your in need of website design or assistance with pay per click campaign manager, why not
visit our website or view our seo blog about seo news and updates, provided by Proweb Direct an seo company, you can also check out our latest blogs about sofas and ironing services .
Limo hire News for all industry related information and updates on the limousine sector.
Limousine hire the hottest limousine, for weddings, stag nights and corporate events and school proms., for Limo hire London
Limo hire West Midlands Limo hire North West Limo hire Scotland
Limo hire Northern Ireland Limo hire Wales contact us for a free quote

stev4n said...

Limo hire in Sussex and Chicester for stretch limousines for all occasions, weddings birthdays and more.
Hire Hummer a national limousine company covering all of the UK
Hire Bentley for a wide range of Bentley cars to hire.
Limo London from 1ST Event Limousines one of the largest limo companies in the south of England
Hire Chauffeur London
Hire Rolls Royce the Rolls Royce hire company
Hire Wedding Car the wedding car hire company
Hire Limousine London and anywhere in the UK
Hire Chauffeur for all chauffeur related services in the UK, chauffeur driven car hire.
Limo sales Chrysler limousines Hummers Lincoln Town cars 1St 4 Limo Sales has everything
Limo hire Northampton and Milton Keynes from White Limos a prestige limousines service.
Wedding car or wedding wedding cars, Hire Wedding Car can provide you with the wedding car for your wedding.
Limo or wedding car Milton Keynes from Champagne Limousines a limo and wedding car hire firm.
Limo hire Milton Keynes the website for all limo inquiries in Milton Keynes.

stev4n said...

Image Red are a design and marketing agency, a website production company and a software design agency. We have a vast service and product range including banner / billboard advertising, LCD touch screen systems, shop window advert projection using the very latest technology in daylight projectors, brochures, brand development from conception to business stationary design and printing, all forms of point of sale advertising, website design , website build and hosting solutions ranging from small business websites to public sector websites in a diverse range of applications from facial recognition to e-commerce, Promat (Profile Matching System) which is a video identification system used by the police forces widely throughout the country and oversees and Maps (Multiple Album Profiling System) which is a product for doing witness viewing albums to help the police identify possible suspects by showing the witness a number of known felons images. If you require any help with anything in your business relating to marketing your products and services effectively then please ring our friendly sales team on 01282 442460 who are ready to take your call now.
3d scanning from Surfdev, a specialist scanning service performed by a reverse engineering company.
Vaccum forming and CAD/CAM, APHWEB provide high specification work, working from drawings and models using modern and traditional methods.
Headstones gravestones or memorials for children adults are pets from Headstones.co.uk.
Memorial service from UK Memorial Service one of the largest stone mason companies in the UK that provide gravestones and memorials for all.

stev4n said...

chauffeurs London for all chauffeur driven cars in the London areas including Heathrow Stansted Gatwick and Biggin Hill
Limo Hire Sheffield Doncaster and Worksop from Stretched to the Extreme a Yorkshire limo hire company.
Limo hire east Sussex and Brighton from East Sussex Limo hire, an NLCA limo member providing a corporate limo service.
Take advantage of lower flight prices now and let Airport transfer Heathrow get you to your preferred Airport on time every time.
If you’re traveling from Cambridge to Stansted , Huntingdon to Stansted, Stansted to Luton, Gatwick to Cambridge
Or any UK airport, rail terminal and Seaport Airport transfer Heathrow will get you there on time in style.
Limo Hire East Sussex provide a professional limo hire service in Brighton Torquay and the surrounding areas.
Limo hire Oxford from The Oxford Limo Company, providing a limo service for all events and occasions such as weddings and birthdays and much more.
Hire Limo Leicester are providers of stretch limos and limo buses in Leicester Nottingham and the West Midlands
Hire Limo Cardiff for all your stretch limousines in Cardiff and the surrounding areas.
Limo hire in London, Limo Hire in London are part of the 1st Event Group a 1st class limo hire service for all of London.
Limo hire Kent and Surrey for limousines in and around north London contact Main Event Limos, a professional limo hire service.

Magazine Ecommerce said...

Neither XQuery nor XSLT2 are supported in the next version of Microsoft's core XML libraries for the simple reason that the Recommendations will not be final in time.

Anonymous said...

Often we forget the little guy, the SMB, in our discussions of the comings and goings of the Internet marketing industry. Sure there are times like this when a report surfaces talking about their issues and concerns but, for the most part, we like to talk about big brands and how they do the Internet marketing thing well or not so well.


www.onlineuniversalwork.com

softech said...

Great post… Great info on bounce rates… I’ll have to write an entry about the same topic some day soon… Bounce rates can tell you alot…
I tend to look at the bounce rate and then look at the keywords that brought people to the site. Does the page answer the keyword question? If No then there is some work to do on that or a new more focused post.


work from home

Anonymous said...

The article of this blog very informative and useful also.It resolves many problems of mine.I loved it.thanks for this marvelous article...................

online jobs

softech said...

I am looking forward to have this course and will let you know if I can find a job working at home here in Canada. I wish I can because I am jobless for more than 3 years now. Finding a job here in Canada is hard especially if your diploma was earned outside Canada because the standard of education is different. I am hoping to get this study course soon and land a job.
online marketing

Anonymous said...

Affiliate Marketing is a performance based sales technique used by companies to expand their reach into the internet at low costs. This commission based program allows affiliate marketers to place ads on their websites or other advertising efforts such as email distribution in exchange for payment of a small commission when a sale results.
www.onlineuniversalwork.com

Anonymous said...

How To Make money with affiliate programs Today. Affiliate marketing is the easier and probably the most effective method to make money from the internet. It is basically, a kind of selling technique where potential buyers from your website are directed to the websites of sellers. For every click, the website owner gets a small commission.
www.onlineuniversalwork.com

«Oldest ‹Older   601 – 784 of 784   Newer› Newest»